State Library of Victoria > La Trobe Journal

No 88 December 2011

[Back matter]

154

Endnotes

Inventing the Melbourne Cup

1 Henri Foussin's wine bar is first listed on this location in Sands and McDougall's Melbourne and Suburban Directory in 1900. The Florentino restaurant opened in 1929.
2 Sands, Kenny and Co's Commercial and General Melbourne Directory, 1860-1861.
3 For Louis Lawrence Smith, (18301910), see his entry in the Australian Dictionary of Biography (hereafter ADB) at http://adb.anu.edu.au/biography/smith-louis-lawrence-4610; Andrew Lemon, Racing and Politics: the great totalisator debate, Melbourne: Hornet Publications, 1972.
4 First horse races contested in Melbourne noted in March 1837, location not certain, Tasmanian, 10 March 1837; first official public race meeting, March 1838, reported in Melbourne Advertiser, 12 March 1838.
5 John Pacini, A Century Galloped By: the first hundred years of the Victoria Racing Club, Melbourne: Victoria Racing Club, 1988.
6 Andrew Lemon, 'Tracks leading to the Melbourne Cup', in Stephen Howell, ed., The Story of the Melbourne Cup: Australia's greatest race, Melbourne: Slattery Media, 2010; Andrew Brown-May and Shurlee Swain, eds, Encyclopedia of Melbourne, South Melbourne, Vic.: Cambridge University Press, 2005; Latrobeana, vol. 8 no. 3, November 2009.
7 J. D. MacInnes, 'The Hunter Brothers at the Devil's River', Victorian Historical Magazine, vol. 14, nos. 52 and 53, 1931, pp. 56-70, 88-104.
8 Watson's land was bounded by the later Racecourse Road, Ascot Vale Road, Maribyrnong Road and the Moonee Ponds Creek.
9 Marriage notice, Port Phillip Herald, 21 January 1841.
10 Howell, The Story of the Melbourne Cup, pp. 27-8.
11 See Paul de Serville, Port Phillip Gentlemen and Good Society in Melbourne Before the Gold Rushes, Carlton, Vic.: Melbourne University Press, 1980; Andrew Lemon, The History of Australian Thoroughbred Racing, vol. 1, 2nd. edn, Melbourne: Hardie Grant, 2008 (first published in 1987).
12 Lemon, The History of Australian Thoroughbred Racing, vol. 1, pp. 239-42; Ian Mudie, Wreck of the Admella, Adelaide: Rigby, 1966.
13 Hansard: report in Argus, 26 January, 21 and 27 February 1861.
14 Argus, advertisements, 28 February 1861.
15 Argus, 25 February 1861.
16 Argus, 1 March 1861.
17 Argus, 26 March 1861.
18 Frederick Charles Standish (1824-1883) was police commissioner from late 1858. See his entry in ADB at http://adb.anu.edu.au/biography/standish-frederick-charles-4632.
19 Bell's Life (Sydney), 26 January 1861.
20 Bell's Life (Sydney), 27 April 1861.
21 Bell's Life (Sydney), 11 May 1861.
22 Keith W. Paterson, The Master's Touch: racing with Etienne de Mestre, winner of five Melbourne Cups, Nowra, NSW: K. Paterson, 2008; Danny Power, 'The early master of the great race', and Andrew Lemon, 'Archer, the first winning raider', in Howell, ed., The Story of the Melbourne Cup.
23 Andrew Lemon, The History of Australian Thoroughbred Racing, vol. 2, second edition, Melbourne: Hardie Grant, 2008, pp. 11-12 (first published in 1990).
24 See Paterson, The Master's Touch.
25 'The Heart of Australian Racing' – symposium held at the National Museum of Australia, Canberra, August 2010. Audio and transcripts available from http://www.nma.gov.au/audio/series/the-heart-of-australian-racing-the-melbourne-cup. See also D. L. Bernstein, The First Tuesday in November,
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Melbourne: Heinemann, 1969; Howell, ed., The Story of the Melbourne Cup; Andrew Lemon, The History of Australian Thoroughbred Racing, vol. 3, Melbourne: Hardie Grant, 2008; Neal Kearney (writer and producer), The Story of the Melbourne Cup (Roadshow DVD), 2010.
26 Mark Twain, Following the Equator: a journey around the world, New York: Harper, 1899, chapter xvi.

1861-62: seminal years in the publishing history of illustrated newspapers in colonial Australia

1 'The English mail day, Melbourne', Illustrated Melbourne Post, 23 August 1862, p. 5.
2 Jeremy Mulvey, 'Pictures with words: a critique of Alain-Marie Bassy's approach', Information Design Journal, vol. 5, no. 2, 1988, pp. 141-158, p. 146.
3 This focus on the images in illustrated newspapers at the expense of the text has been accentuated by the advent of keyword searching for images on-line, using sites such as Picture Australia (http://www.pictureaustralia.org) and its associated institutional libraries. The service will bring up the image but not the accompanying article. Unfortunately, users are either not aware of an associated text, or do not bother to look for it by going to the holding library and looking at the microfilm of the newspaper. For an alternative approach to searching for images, see Peter Dowling, Index to Imagery in Colonial Australian Illustrated Newspapers, (forthcoming in 2012).
4 Gerald Needham, 19th Century realist Art, New York: Harper & Row, 1988, p. 35.
5 Daguerre invented the daguerreoytpe process which produced just one negative image that could be viewed as a positive image. Fox Talbot invented the collotype process which allowed for multiple positive copies to be produced from a negative image, this being the forerunner of the wet-glass plate camera.
6 Needham, 19th Century Realist Art, pp. 18-19.
7 'Illustrated London News', Wikipedia, accessed 1 May 2011.
8 Needham, 19th Century Realist Art, pp. 18-19.
9 'L'Illustration', Wikipedia, accessed 1 May 2011.
10 F. L. Mott, History of American Magazines, 1741-1930, Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 5 vols, 1930-68, vol. 2, 1865-1885, ch. 18, 'Gleason's/Ballou's Pictorial Drawing Room Companion', ch. 26, 'Lesley's Weekly', & ch. 28, 'Harper's Weekly'.
11 Australians: a historical library, 10 vols, Sydney: Fairfax, Syme and Weldon, 1987, vol. 10, Historical Statistics, pp. 26 & 41, for all population figures unless otherwise stated.
12 Beverly Kingston, A hHstory of New South Wales, South Melbourne, Vic.: CUP, 2006, pp. 53-5.
13 Joan Kerr, ed., The Dictionary of Australian Artists: painters, sketchers, photographers and engravers to 1870, Melbourne: OUP, 1992, pp. 521-2.
14 'Valedictory', Illustrated Sydney News, 30 June 1855, p. 341.
15 Kerr, Dictionary of Australian Artists, pp. 147-9 & 329 respectively. Both men arrived in 1854, Grosse, early in the year to initially spend time on the Bendigo goldfield, and Chevalier later in the year, going straight into illustration and cartooning.
16 Illustrated Journal of Australasia, vol. 4, no. 21, March 1858, p. 143.
17 Lurline Stuart, Australian Periodicals with Literary Content, 1821-1925: an annotated bibliography, Melbourne: Australian Scholarly Publishing, 2003, see individual entries. See also her Nineteenth Century Australian Periodicals: an annotated bibliography, Sydney, Hale and Iremonger, 1987.
18 Stuart, Australian periodicals with literary content, p. x. See also her Nineteenth century Australian periodicals, p. 2.
19 C. Lansbury, Arcady in Australia: the evocation of Australia in nineteenth-century English literature, Melbourne: MUP, 1970, ch. 6, 'The Caxtons'; and David Goodman, Gold Seeking: Victoria and California in the 1850s, St Leonards, NSW: Allen & Unwin, 1994, ch. 4, 'Agrarianism and pastoral'.
20 Goodman, Gold Seeking, ch. 5.
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21 Goodman, Gold Seeking, p. 154.
22 Goodman, Gold Seeking, pp. xvii-xix & 115-8.
23 Don Garden, Victoria: a history, Melbourne: Nelson, 1984, p. 91. The voyage to England took three months, and in the early 1850s, even the Royal mail was unreliable, ceasing completely in the period, 1855-57, due to the Crimean War. Not until P. & O. assumed responsibility for the service in 1858 could colonists rely on the regular delivery and receipt of mail to and from England, and even then the mailing of letters was more secure than that of newspapers and parcels.
24 Kerr, Dictionary of Australian Artists, pp. 764-5. See also Goodman, Gold Seeking, ch. 6, 'Excitement', especially pp. 189-203, regarding how the goldrushes attracted a fair number of mentally unstable gold seekers and the consequent role of asylums.
25 Kerr, Dictionary of Australian Artists, pp. 127-9. Calvert was a son of Edward Calvert, one of the early second-quarter nineteenth-century artists who gathered loosely round William Blake, and were known as the Ancients.
26 Advertisement for Newsletter of Australasia, in Illustrated Melbourne News, 23 January, 1858, p. 51.
27 Newsletter of Australasia, December 1857 issue, lists agents in Ararat, Ballarat, Beechworth, Castlemaine, Dunnolly, Geelong, Maryborough, Sandhurst (Bendigo), and Warrnambool.
28 A. Lambert, Nineteenth Century Railway History through the Illustrated London News, Newton Abbot, Devonshire: David Charles, 1984, pp. 7-8.
29 Beverley Kingston, Glad, Confident Morning, 1860-1900, Melbourne: OUP, 1988 (vol. 3 of The Oxford history of Australia), p. 12.
30 Garden, Victoria, pp. 123, 126, 131-3, and Kingston, Glad, Confident Morning, pp. 29-31.
31 As surmised from pattern of publication discussed in endnote 32. The first known surviving issue is no. 27, 21 April 1862.
32 Unfortunately, only seven issues of the Illustrated Australian News survive for the period, 1861-63, however, from an analysis of issue sequencing relative to the dates of these issues, this pattern of publication has been established at a speculative level.
33 For the purpose of clarity, the names of the daily papers have been given rather than the name of the proprietary company.
34 Garden, Victoria, pp. 171-2.
35 Unfortunately, no records exist to be able to establish how the illustrated newspapers conducted their business with illustrators, photographers or engravers.
36 Kerr, Dictionary of Australian Artists, pp. 172-3, for Albert Cook, and Alan McCulloch et al, The New McCulloch's Encyclopaedia of Australian art, 4th ed., Melbourne: Miegunyah, 2006, pp. 360-1 & 643, for James Waltham Curtis and John Macfarlane respectively (both entries being brief and incomplete). See also the website, http://www.printsandprintmaking.gov.au.
37 Kerr, Dictionary of Australian Artists, pp. 834-5, & L. Gillbank, 'Charles Walter: collector of images and plants in east Gippsland', Gippsland Heritage Journal, no. 13, December 1992.
38 Kirsty Grant, In Relief: Australian wood engravings, woodcuts and linocuts, (exh. cat.), Melbourne: National Gallery of Victoria, 1997, pp. 18-19, for an image of a woodblock and the engraving printed from it. The NGV has a collection of about eight woodblocks, some engraved, and others with a gouache image painted onto it, but not engraved. They are the only surviving blocks of the thousands used to produce engravings in the papers.
39 Paul Hogarth, The Artist as Reporter, London, Studio Vista, 1967, p. 27, for illustrators' sketches being reduced to a bland uniformity by wood engravers.
40 No information about these two engravers is available.
41 Garden, Victoria, p. 80.
42 The Illustrated Sydney News (second series) was published independently by Gibbs, Shallard & Co., a printing and stationery firm in Sydney; it had no connection with any of Sydney's daily papers.
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43 Peter Dowling, 'Chronicles of progress: The illustrated newspapers of colonial Australia, 1853-1896', PhD thesis, National Centre for Australian Studies, Monash University, 1997. This description summarises the thematic structure of the thesis.
44 The Sydney Mail has been cited as the first newspaper to produce a half-tone – 'The recent railway accident at Young' - in September 1888, but this is incorrect.
45 At the end of 1868, when the Herald (1840-1990) closed the Illustrated Melbourne Post, the parent daily changed from being a morning paper to an evening paper, beginning at the start of 1869. Later that same year, it took over the Weekly Times (1869-) which had been founded earlier in the year by the Daily Telegraph (1869-92). See 'Appendix: Publication dates and title changes of the major daily, weekly and monthly newspapers', in Peter Dowling, 'Catching up on the News: local, colonial and Australia-wide', Local Newspapers – Local identities: proceedings of the newspaper history conference, Chiltern, Victoria, 1-3 October 1999, Bibliographical Society of Australia and New Zealand Bulletin, vol, 23, no. 4, 1999 /vol. 24, no. 1, 2000, pp. 241-48, pp. 246-48.
46 Comment by Rod Kirkpatrick in talkback at 'Local Newspapers – Local identities', Newspaper History Conference, Chiltern, Victoria, 1-3 October 1999.

"The Auspicious Commencement of so Grand a Design"

1 J. Burke, 'Foreword', in L. Cox, The National Gallery of Victoria 1861 to 1968: a search for a collection, Melbourne: National Gallery of Victoria, [1970?], p. xi.
2 See, E. La Touche Armstrong, The Book of the Public Library, Museums and National Gallery of Victoria, 1856-1906, Melbourne: Trustees of the Public Library, Museums and National Gallery, 1906; A. Galbally, 'The Lost Museum, Redmond Barry and the Musée des Copies', Australian Journal of Art, vol. vii, 1988, pp. 29-50; A. Galbally, and A. Inglis, The First Collections: the Public Library and the National Gallery of Victoria in the 1850s and 1860s, Parkville, Vic.: University Gallery, the University of Melbourne Museum of Art, 1992; K. M. Fennessy, 'For "Love of Art": the Museum of Art and the Picture Gallery at the Melbourne Public Library 1860-1870', La Trobe Journal, no. 75, Autumn 2005, pp. 5-20.
3 C. Aspinall, Three Years in Melbourne, 1862, quoted in A. Galbally, 'Patron of the Arts at the Antipodes', La Trobe Journal, no. 73, Autumn 2004, p. 5.
4 S. Burt, 'Library Trustees at Work: letters from Barry to Childers 1859-60', La Trobe Journal, no. 73, Autumn 2004, pp. 75-94.
5 Address of the Trustees of the Melbourne Public Library, presented to his Excellency Sir Henry Barkly, K.C.B., Governor-in-Chief of the Colony of Victoria, on the opening of the Museum of Art, on Friday May 24th, 1861, being the Birth Day of Her Most Gracious Majesty, Queen Victoria; with his Excellency's Reply, Melbourne: Public Library Trustees, 1861, np.
6 'Opening of the Art Room at the Public Library', Age, 25 May 1861, 'Opening of the Museum of Art in the Public Library', Argus, 25 May 1861, p. 5; 'Museum of Art', Ballarat Star, 27 May 1861, p. 15; 'Public Library Melbourne', Portland Guardian and Normanby General Advertiser, 3 June 1861, p. 3; 'Victoria', Brisbane Courier, 10 June 1861, p. 3.
7 'The Public Library: Opening of New Wing', Argus, 25 May 1859, p. 6.
8 'Opening of the Art Room at the Public Library', Age, 25 May 2011, p. 10. At the bottom of the replica of the 25 May 1861 page was written: 'From a room in a library to a Melbourne icon, The Age congratulates the NGV on 150 years'.
9 It should be noted that the Argus reversed the order of proceedings in its publication of the speeches, placing Sir Henry Barkly's response before Sir Redmond Barry's address.
10 Barkly, in Address of the Trustees... to his Excellency Sir Henry Barkly, May 24th, 1861, np.
11 Sir Redmond Barry in, Address Presented by the Trustees to His Excellency Major-General Macarthur, Acting Governor, at the Opening of the Library, 11 February, 1856, cited in La Trobe Journal, no. 72,
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Spring, 2003, p. 17.
12 For a discussion of the models that influenced the development of the Public Library and Museum of Art, see Galbally and Inglis, The First Collections, pp. 9-10.
13 A. Galbally, Redmond Barry, an Anglo-Irish Australia, Carlton, Vic.: Melbourne University Press, 1995, p. 96.
14 Richard Overell, 'Introduction', in Early Book Purchases in the Melbourne Public Library: Redmond Barry's instructions to the Agent-General, December 3rd 1853, Clayton, Vic.: Ancora Press, 1997, p. vi
15 Galbally and Inglis, The First Collections, p. 101.
16 Sir Redmond Barry quoted in Early Book Purchases in the Melbourne Public Library, p. v.
17 Galbally, Redmond Barry, p. 97
18 Alexander Sutherland, Victoria and its Metropolis, Past and Present, Melbourne: McCarron, Bird and Co., 1888, vol. 1, p. 389.
19 A full listing of art books is in The Catalogue of the Melbourne Public Library for 1861, Melbourne: Melbourne Public Library Trustees, 1861, p. iii.
20 The Catalogue of the Melbourne Public Library for 1861, p. ix
21 Ibid. The exact attendance figure listed in the catalogue is 26,003, p. x.
22 Census of 1861 – Distribution of the Population, Victorian Government Gazette, 23 July 1861(112), pp. 1403-6.
23 Library, Museums and National Gallery Act, Victorian Government Gazette, 31 December 1869 (published as a supplement), pp. 245-47.
24 Report of the Trustees of the Public Library, Museum and National Gallery of Victoria, 1870-71, quoted in Galbally and Inglis, The First Collections, p. 7
25 Sir Redmond Barry, in Address of the Trustees ... to his Excellency Sir Henry Barkly, May 24th, 1861, 1861, np.
26 Barry to Childers, 14 May 1859, quoted Galbally, 'The Lost Museum', p. 35.
27 Ibid.
28 Burt, 'Library Trustees at Work', p. 86.
29 Ibid.
30 Waters to Barry, quoted Galbally, 'The Lost Museum', p. 37.
31 Ibid.
32 Francis Haskell and Penny Nicholas, Taste and the Antique, the Lure of Classical Sculpture 1500-1900, London: Yale University Press, 1981, p. 117.
33 Barry to Childers, 15 April 1859, quoted Galbally, 'The Lost Museum', p. 35.
34 Waters to Barry, 26 October 1860, quoted Galbally, 'The Lost Museum', p. 36.
35 Joseph Anderson Panton Papers, MS 10071, MSB 142, Australian Manuscripts Collection, State Library of Victoria. The authors would like to thank Gerard Hayes, Pictures Collection, State Library of Victoria, for drawing this catalogue to their attention.
36 Joseph Anderson Panton Papers.
37 For the details of Panton's career as public servant and artist, see the entry in the Australian Dictionary of Biography (ADB) on-line (http://adb.anu.edu.au/biography/panton-josephanderson-4362) and the Design and Art Australia on line (http://www.daao.org.au/bio/josephanderson-panton/).
38 For the significance of the Elgin Marbles for Victorian artists, see R. P. Asleson, 'Classic into Modern: the inspiration of antiquity in English painting, 1864-1918', PhD Thesis, 1993, UMI Dissertation Information Service, 1999, pp. 167-197.
39 Address of the Trustees of the Melbourne Public Library, Presented to the Governor-in -Chief Sir Henry Barkly KCB ..., Melbourne: Trustees of the Melbourne Public Library, 1859, p. 2.
40 'Catalogue and Account Book of the Museum of Art', nd, pp. 1-16. This book, documenting the acquisition of works of art for the Museum of Art, is held in the Registration Department of the
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National Gallery of Victoria. The authors would like to thank Janine Bofill, Head Registrar, the National Gallery of Victoria for her generous assistance in providing access to the Museum of Art/National Gallery of Victoria Stock-Books.
41 Waters to Barry, 26 October 1860, quoting Barry's letter of 25 August 1860, in Galbally, 'The Lost Museum', p. 36.
42 Galbally, 'The Lost Museum', p. 38.
43 Sir Redmond Barry, in Address of the Trustees ... to his Excellency Sir Henry Barkly, May 24th, 1861, np. For sculptor, Charles Summers see ADB online: http://adb.anu.edu.au/biography/summerscharles-4668. A list compiled on 9 February 1861 by a Lloyd's agent in Melbourne gave details of the damage to friezes, statues and busts, and a market value given for insurance purposes (see VPRS 1074/P7/35, Miscellaneous Reports, Catalogues, Lists, Statutes, University Accounts etc. 1862-1875).
44 Barry Papers, MS 8380, Box 599, 1 (b), State Library of Victoria; Letter, Barry to Childers, nd. [written after the official opening of the Museum of Art]. Barry sent 'a few copies of the address by Gov. Barkly on opening the Museum of Art' with the letter.
45 National Gallery Archives, London, NGA2/4/2/37. Pamela Tuckett would like to thank Nicholas Donaldson of the National Gallery London Archives for notification of the existence of this letter.
46 Ibid.
47 VPRS 903/P144/69/20885: Letter, Thomas Clark to Secretary, Board of Education, Victoria, 7 November 1869; and VPRS 1074/P5: Applications for Drawing Master, Thomas Clark to The Trustees of the Public Library, 2 July 1870. Awards to a 'Mr T. Clarke' from the Royal Academy London were listed in the Art Union in 1846. See 'Royal Academy, The Distribution of Medals', Art Union, January 1846, p. 12.
48 Galbally notes 'Clark was said to have been director of the Nottingham School of Arts before he was appointed anatomical draftsman at King's College, London, in 1843 . . . In December 1846, at his own request, Clark was also appointed drawing-master at the King Edward's School of Design'. See A. Galbally, 'Clark, Thomas (1814-1883)', ADB online http://adb.anu.edu.au/biography/clarkthomas-3218
49 Victorian Society of Fine Arts and John Shillinglaw, Prospectus for the Victorian Society of Fine Arts' School of Design, Melbourne: [?], 1857 [?]. Clark was to have taught 'Free-hand Drawing from Copies & Models; Geometrical Perspective, Architectural; the Human figure and Modelling', the modelling being three dimensional building and casting.
50 Barry Papers, MS 8380, Box 599, 1 (b) Letter, Barry to Childers, 24 April 1860, SLV.
51 Dictionary of Art Historians, 'Ralph Nicholson Wornum', http://www.dictionaryofarthistorians.org/wornum/htm.
52 For the careers of Cole and Wornum, see S. Macdonald, The History and Philosophy of Art Education, London: University of London Press, 1970, pp. 129-142, 157-199, 241-44.
53 Its full title was, Analysis of Ornament, the Characteristics of Styles: an introduction to the study of the history of ornamental art, being an outline of sixteen lectures on the subject, originally prepared for the Government School of Design in the Years 1848, 1849, 1850, London: Chapman and Hall, 1856. Macdonald claims it had 'as much influence on the teaching of aspiring designers in the Schools of Art as Jones' Grammar of Ornament' (see History and Philosophy, p. 244). The State Library of Victoria holds a copy, as well as three other texts by Wornum, all listed in the Fine Art section of the Library's 1865 catalogue.
54 National Gallery Archives, London, NGA2/4/2/37.
55 The identity of the architect is not given, but it could be Joseph Reed, the architect of the Public Library or William Wilkinson Wardell, who was later appointed to the Fine Arts Commission in 1863.
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56 M. Baker, 'The Reproductive Continuum: plaster casts, paper mosaics and photographs as complementary modes of reproduction in the nineteenth-century museum', in R. Frederiksen and E. Marchand, eds, Plaster Casts: making, collecting and displaying from Classical Antiquity to the Present, Berlin: De Gruyter, 2010, pp. 487, 494-95.
57 Clark's attitude is curious, as he himself was a practicing photographer. See M. Robinson, Thomas Clark (1814-1883) Artist and Educator, Conference Paper, the Joint Conference of Australia and New Zealand and British History of Education Societies, Swansea, November 2002.
58 Quoted Burt, 'Library Trustees at Work', p. 81. Barry added 'He [Wornum] must be paid I suppose which will encroach on our small funds but that outlay may save us immensely besides we get the advantage of his acquaintance with the subject'.
59 National Gallery Archives, London, NGA2/4/2/37. Wornum and Cole had clashed publicly before Cole was appointed Superintendent of the Department of Practical Art in 1852; see Macdonald, History and Philosophy of Art Education, pp. 138-139.
60 Waters to Barry, quoted Galbally, 'The Lost Museum', p. 37.
61 Ibid.
62 For an enthusiastic review of these 'invaluable' reproductions following their installation in the Museum of Art later in the year, see Argus, 9 November 1861, p. 4.
63 Writing to Childers, soon after the event, Barry mentioned the arrival of the vessel, Flying Cloud, with further works for the Museum of Art, including stereoscopic views and some seals, but obviously too late for the opening. See Barry Papers, MS 8380, Box 599, 1 (b), State Library of Victoria, Letter, Barry to Childers, written after the official opening of the Museum of Art.
64 National Gallery Archives, London, NGA2/4/2/37.
65 Barry, in Address of the Trustees ... to his Excellency Sir Henry Barkly, May 24th, 1861.
66 Sir Henry Barkly, cited in Address of the Trustees ... to his Excellency Sir Henry Barkly, May 24th, 1861.
67 D. McCaughey, N. Perkins and A. Trumble, Victoria's Colonial Governors 1839-1900, Carlton, Vic.: Melbourne University Press, 1993, pp. 93-98.
68 Barkly's efforts in sending botanical specimens to Kew during his terms of office in Guiana, Jamaica, Victoria and Mauritius, eventually would 'earn him an F. R. S. [Fellow of the Royal Society]', see M. Macmillan, Sir Henry Barkly, Mediator and Moderator 1815-1898, Cape Town: A. A. Balkema, 1970, p. 35.
69 Sir Henry Barkly, 'Reply' to 'Address presented to his Excellency Sir Henry Barkly, KCB, on the opening of the eighth exhibition of the Society, February 11, 1858', Victoria Industrial Society, Catalogue of the Eighth Annual Exhibition of Manufactures, Produce, Machinery and Fine Arts, Melbourne: Victoria Industrial Society, 1858, p. viii.
70 Argus, 5 January 1857, quoted M. Hancock, Colonial Consorts: the wives of Victoria's governors 1839-1900, Carlton, Vic.: The Meigunyah Press, Melbourne University Press, 2001, p. 52.
71 Macmillan quotes a contemporary account of the Barklys touring Jamaica: '. . . H. E. [His Excellency] at once brought his pencil into requisition and sketched the enchanting scenery ... Nor was Sir Henry Barkly . . . the only devotee of art, fairer fingers had a pencil too.' Macmillan comments: 'In fact, Lady Barkly may have been the better artist of the two. Two oil-paintings by her of . . . Highgate, the Governor's hill residence, hang in the Institute of Jamaica, and are something more than amateur efforts'. Macmillan, Sir Henry Barkly, pp. 71-72.
72 Tim Bonyhady, Australian Colonial Paintings in the Australian National Gallery, South Melbourne, Vic.: Oxford University Press, 1986, p. 179, note 44.
73 C. Downer, 'Images of Empire: Sir Henry Barkly's Photographic Album, 1858-1877', La Trobe Journal, no. 62, Spring 1998, p. 39. For this earlier vice-regal commission, see H. Botham, La Trobe's Jolimont: a walk around my garden, Melbourne: C. J. La Trobe Society & Australian Garden History Society, 2006.
74 See Macmillan, Sir Henry Barkly, pp. 29-33, 112.
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75 Album compiled by Sir Henry Barkly during his time as Governor of Victoria, Mauritius, Cape Province (South Africa) after his retirement to England in 1877, (c. 1858-c.1877), H92, 101/1-107, Pictures Collection, State Library of Victoria.
76 Downer, 'Images of Empire', p. 39.
77 Sir Henry Barkly's first wife, Elizabeth, Lady Barkly, tragically died in Melbourne in 1857. It is his second wife, Annie, whom he married in 1860, who appears in the work of colonial photographers. See Hancock, Colonial Consorts, p. 60.
78 P. Reynolds, 'A Note on Henry Burn, 1807?-1884', La Trobe Library Journal, no. 11, April 1973, pp. 52, 58.
79 For example, see Henry Short's letter to Sir Henry Barkly, dated 16 April 1862, describing his painting, Our Adopted Country, 'in memory of the lamented heores of the Victorian Expedition, 1861, and asking him to take shares in the Art Union formed to sell the painting. Sir Henry agreed to take two shares. C. Downer, 'The Language of Flowers: Henry Short's Our Adopted Country, La Trobe Journal, no. 30, Spring 1998, pp. 19-20.
80 Thomas Clark, Sir Henry Barkly, G G. M. G., K. C. B., Governor of Victoria, 1864 oil on canvas, H2003.55, Pictures Collection, State Library of Victoria; Charles Summers, Sir Henry Barkly, 1864, white marble, LTS 4, Pictures Collection, State Library of Victoria.
81 Various portraits of Barkly were produced by Frederick Grosse, Samuel Calvert, John Botterill among others. See the Pictures Collection Catalogue of State Library of Victoria for a more complete listing.
82 See Macmillan, Sir Henry Barkly, p. 136.
83 For differing opinions of the portrait's success, see Argus, 18 May 1864; Melbourne Punch, 12 January 1865.
84 It is now on permanent display in the Red Rotunda Room off the Cowen Gallery in the State Library.
85 Second Progress Report of the Commission on the Fine Arts quoted in Philippa Murray, The NGV Story: A Celebration of 150 Years, Melbourne, Trustees of the National Gallery of Victoria, 2011, p. 11.
86 Sir Henry Barkly, cited in Address of the Trustees ... to his Excellency Sir Henry Barkly, May 24th, 1861.

The Victorian Art Exhibition 1864-65

1 Argus, 10 October 1864, p. 5.
2 Argus, 27 December 1864, p. 6.
3 Age, 24 December 1864, p. 5. See the illustration in the Illustrated Australian News, 25 January 1865, p. 8.
4 Argus, 5 March 1864, p. 5; Victoria Government Gazette, no. 22, 4 March 1864, p. 523.
5 Argus, 16 December 1864, p. 5.
6 A. Galbally, et al, The First Collections: the Public Library and the National Gallery of Victoria in the 1850s and 1860s, Melbourne: University of Melbourne Museum of Art, 1992.
7 Australian Manuscript Collection, State Library of Victoria, Mss PA 02/119.
8 Herald, 17 December, 1864, p. 2, and 29 December, 1864, p. 2.
9 The nature of Chevlaier's latest paintings and the lecture by Neumayer showe the seriousness of the German's at work, Argus, 21 August 1862, p. 5.
10 'The Temple of Hymen' has a description in the Argus, from when it was displayed at 'Mr Hymen's Establishment', Argus, 21 August 1862, p. 5.
11 Age, 24 December 1864, mistakenly attributed 'The Temple of Hymen' to Fallon.
12 Argus, 21 December 1864, suppl. p. 1; and 27 December 1864, p. 6.
13 Herald, 29 December 1864, p. 2; Age, 29 December 1864, p. 5.
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14 Argus, 27 December 1864, p. 6
15 Herald, 8 December 1864, p. 2.
16 Age, 24 December 1864, p. 5. See also the Argus, 21 December 1864, suppl. p. 1.
17 Argus, 18 May 1864, p. 5.
18 Argus, 27 December 1864, p. 6.
19 Ibid, 27 December 1864, p. 5.
20 Age, 24 December 1864, p. 5.
21 Herald, 8 December 1864, p. 2. See also the Argus, 21 December 1864, suppl. p. 1; and 27 December 1864, p. 6; Age, 24 December 1864, p. 5.
22 Herald, 8 December 1864, p. 2.
23 Argus, 21 December 1864, suppl. p. 1.
24 Age, 24 December 1864, p. 5.
25 The death notices in the Age (18 July 1865, p. 4) and the Argus (17 July 1865, p. 4) have his date of death as the 16 July 1865.
26 Argus, 27 December 1864, p. 6.
27 Herald, 29 December 1864, p. 2.
28 Argus, 21 December 1864, suppl. p. 1.
29 Herald, 17 December 1864, p. 2
30 Age, 24 December 1864, p. 5.
31 Argus, 21 December 1864, supp, p. 1.
32 Age, 24 December 1864, p. 5.
33 Argus, 21 December 1864, supp, p. 1.
34 Herald, 29 December 1864, p. 2.
35 Argus, 21 December 1864, suppl. p. 1.
36 Age, 24 December 1864, p. 5.
37 Herald, 29 December 1864, p. 2.
38 Herald, 29 December 1864, p. 2.
39 Age, 24 December 1864, p. 5.

The Battle for the Lands: glimpses from a squatter's correspondence

1 Niel Black (hereafter NB) to Alexander Finlay, 21 February 1864, Outward Letterbooks, Niel Black Papers, MS 8996, State Library of Victoria (hereafter NB Papers where all cited Niel Black letters are located). Margaret Kiddle drew from this the title of her seminal work Men of Yesterday: a social history of the Western District of Victoria, 1834-90, Melbourne: MUP, 1961.
2 For a (somewhat unsympathetic) summary of Black's life see his entry in ADB at http://adb.anu.edu.au/biography/black-niel-3003.
3 NB to T. S. Gladstone (hereafter TSG), 20 December 1860.
4 For example, Charles Jardine Don, a working class MP and champion of land agitation, threatened in the Assembly to 'drive the squatters over the Murray with their own stockwhips'. Quoted in Geoffrey Serle, The Golden Age: a history of the colony of Victoria 1851-1861, Melbourne: MUP, 1963, p. 301.
5 This is the received view, and the one current at the time; but J. M. Powell, see below, views the Acts as incremental in both elaboration and effect.
6 Kiddle, Men of Yesterday, discusses the opening of American lands, a parallel often cited at the time, but finds the equivalence unconvincing on many grounds, pp. 229-30.
7 Maggie MacKellar, Strangers in a Foreign Land, Carlton, Vic.: Miegunyah Press, 2008. This contains the journal of Niel Black, covering the period September 1839-April 1840.
8 John Buys, 'Statistical Report of All the Lands Bought by Niel Black & Co in the Australian Colonies', c. 1863, unpublished manuscript, NB Papers.
163
9 NB to TSG, 12 January 1860.
10 J. M. Powell, The Public Lands of Australia Felix: settlement and Land appraisal in Victoria, 1834-91, Carlton, Vic.: MUP, 1970, p. 75.
11 Powell, The Public Lands, p. 27; John Ireland, 'The Victorian Land Act of 1862 Revisited', Victorian Historical Journal, vol. 65, no. 2, October 1994, p. 130.
12 Powell, The Public Lands, pp. 54-55.
13 Kiddle, Men of Yesterday, pp. 227-228.
14 NB to TSG, 20 February 1860, 14 March 1860.
15 NB to TSG, 14 April 1860.
16 Serle, The Golden Age, p. 287; NB to TSG, 11 Jan 1860.
17 Serle, The Golden Age, p. 296.
18 James Service, (18231899). See his entry in ADB at http://adb.anu.edu.au/biography/servicejames-4561.
19 NB to TSG, 14 April 1860.
20 NB to TSG, 23 April and 16 June 1860.
21 NB to TSG, 23 April 1860.
22 NB to TSG, 19 February 1861.
23 NB to TSG, 16 June 1860.
24 NB to TSG, 25 July 1860.
25 Powell, The Public Lands, pp. 79-80.
26 Serle, The Golden Age p. 296.
27 NB to TSG, 6 July 1860.
28 NB to TSG, 21 December 1860.
29 Richard Davies Ireland (1815-1877), also Attorney-General under the next administration, was sympathetic to the squatters. Black must have known him personally. See Kiddle, Men of Yesterday, his entry in ADB (at http://adb.anu.edu.au/biography/ireland-richard-davies-3837), and various NB letters, notably NB to TSG, 22 March 1861.
30 Kiddle, Men of Yesterday, pp. 231-232.
31 NB to J. G. Hamilton, (the father of a young man sent out to learn about squatting and make his way in the colony, with NB acting as mentor), 23 March 1861.
32 NB to TSG, 24 January 1861.
33 NB to J. G. Hamilton, 19 February 1861.
34 NB to TSG, March 22 1861 and 5 October 1870.
35 Kiddle, Men of Yesterday, p. 239.
36 NB to TSG, [?] December 1866; a phrase from NB's correspondence used by Margaret Kiddle in Men of Yesterday to characterise the working of the Land Acts during the first half of the 1860s.
37 NB to TSG, 22 March 1861; NB to J. G. Hamilton, 23 March 1861.
38 NB to J. G. Hamilton, 19 February 1861.
39 Powell The Public Lands, p. 81.
40 Ibid, p. 67.
41 NB to TSG, 18 May 1861.
42 NB to TSG, 22 March 1861.
43 'Statistical Report', pp. 31-32, NB Papers.
44 J. M. Powell, 'Gamblers by Act of Parliament: some aspects of the first Selection Acts for Victoria', Victorian Historical Magazine, vol. 39, no. 4, November 1968, p. 209.
45 Powell, The Public Lands, p. 105.
46 Richard Heales (1821-1864). See his entry in ADB at http://adb.anu.edu.au/biography/healesrichard-3742.
47 Serle, The Golden Age, p. 302.
164
48 NB to TSG, 9 April 1861.
49 NB to TSG, 18 May 1861; NB to Alexander Finlay, 22 May 1861.
50 NB to TSG, 21 June 1861.
51 Serle, The Golden Age, p. 304.
52 NB to TSG, 19 July 1861.
53 Ireland, 'The Victorian Land Act 1862 Revisited', p. 133.
54 NB to TSG, 21 September 1861.
55 Powell, The Public Lands, p. 81.
56 Kiddle, pp. 234-5; NB to TSG, 16 January 1862.
57 Charles Gavan Duffy, My Life in Two Hemispheres London 1898, vol. II, pp. 232 and 238.
58 Kiddle, Men of Yesterday, p. 232.
59 NB to TSG, 21 November 1861.
60 'Statistical Report', NB Papers.
61 NB to TSG, 23 November 1861.
62 NB to TSG, 15 July and 18 May 1861.
63 Steuart Gladstone Black, born 14 April 1862, is the author's grandfather.
64 NB to TSG, 20 December 1865.

Charles La Trobe in Neuchâtel: a research report

1 Washington Irving on the Prairie, or A Narrative of a Tour of the Southwest in the year 1832, by Henry Leavitt Ellsworth, ed. Stanley T. Williams and Barbara D. Simson, New York: American Book Company, 1937, p. 68.
2 Charles Joseph La Trobe, The Alpenstock; or sketches of Swiss scenery and manners. MDCCCXXV— MDCCCXXVI, London: Seeley and Burnside, 1829, p. 3.
3 Albert de Pourtalès to La Trobe, 20 June 1855. La Trobe Neuchâtel Archive, State Library of Victoria, MS 13354. Box 4/33.
4 La Trobe to John Murray III, 27 December 1861. John Murray Archive.
5 F. A. M. Jeanneret et J. H. Bonhòte, Biographie Neuchâteloise, Locle, Switzerland: Chez Eugene Courvoisier, 1863, vol. 2, p. 119.
6 Recherches Généalogiques par Pierre-Arnold Borel, Octobre 2007; http://www.montmollin.ch/docs/monert-droz-lory.pdf.
7 La Trobe Neuchâtel Archive MS 13354. Box 1/10.
8 Biographie Neuchâteloise, p. 119.
9 Ibid, p. 118.
10 John Knox Laughton, ed., Memoirs of the Life and Correspondence of Henry Reeve, London: Longman, 1898, p. 12.
11 New Advent Catholic Encyclopedia, http://www.newadvent.org
12 La Trobe Archive, State Library of Victoria, MS13003.
13 La Trobe Neuchâtel Archive, Box 5/44.
14 La Trobe Neuchâtel Archive.
15 La Trobe to Mme de Pourtalès, 8/11 August 1834, La Trobe Neuchâtel Archive, Box 5/43.
16 Washington Irving, A Tour on the Prairies [1835], ed. John Francis McDermott, Norman, University of Oklahoma Press, 1956, p. 13.
17 La Trobe, The Alpenstock, p. 384.
18 La Trobe to Mme de P, 8/11 August 1834. La Trobe Neuchâtel Archive, Box 5/43.
19 La Trobe Archive.
20 Irving, A Tour of the Prairies, p. 13.
21 La Trobe, The Alpenstock, p. 193.
165
22 Ibid, p. 383.
23 Ibid, p. 384.

George Rowe's View of Melbourne from the Observatory 1858

1 George Rowe (1796-1864). See his entry in the Australian Dictionary of Biography, available at http://adb.anu.edu.au/biography/rowe-george-4515.
2 My Note Book, 26 June 1858, p. 631, and 7 August 1858, p. 677. The whereabouts of the original watercolour are not known. A watercolour copy by someone other than Rowe, presumably after the lithograph, exists in two corresponding halves, one held by the National Library of Australia (NK4191) and the other by the State Library of Victoria (H8364).
3 Georg Balthasar van Neumayer (1826-1909). See his entry in ADB at http://adb.anu.edu.au/biography/neumayer-georg-balthasar-von-4290.
4 The white-coated gentleman to the immediate left of the Observatory bears a suggestive resemblance to Ludwig Becker, the artist who also perished on the fateful Burke and Wills expedition. Becker knew Neumayer well and he would have undoubtedly been a familiar visitor to the Observatory.
5 Georg Neumayer, 'Description and System of working of the Flagstaff Observatory', Transactions of the Philosophical Institute of Victoria, vol. III, 1859, pp. 94-103.
6 Argus, 12 July 1858.

Death in the Picture Collection

1 Daniel Thomas, Outlines of Australian Art: the Joseph Brown Collection, 3rd ed., Melbourne: Macmillan, 1989, pp. 30, 58. Thomas assumed that the artist was the subject's brother.
2 Medical Board of Victoria. Old register 1845-1862. VPRS 16394/P0001/1
3 Argus, 3 January 1862, p. 4, col. 7
4 VPRS 24, box 108/41. Inquest record 1861/41, Public Record Office Victoria.
5 VPRS 29/P/0000, units 7 and 37. No copy of the will was found in these records, and a probate advertisement placed in the Age. A search for any caveat on the will also proved negative.
6 Argus, 4 January 1862, p. 8.
7 Ludwig Becker (1808-1861). See his entry in ADB at http://adb.anu.edu.au/biography/beckerludwig-2961.
8 Victoria. Pharmacy Board. Register 1877-1894. IN 95, State Library of Victoria microfilm.
9 His address was given as 3 Amsterdam Street, East Richmond.
10 http://search.ancestrylibrary.com/ accessed 5 July 2011.
11 VPRS 24/P/0000. Inquest report 1891/1513, PRO, Melbourne: Constable Plowright's deposition.
12 Employment records for the Maryborough Hospital at this time do not seem to be held in the Public Record Office, although some patient records are held at the Genealogical Centre.
13 VPRS 24/P/0000. Inquest report 1891/1513.
14 No record for probate has been found, so it is likely that Burrowes had nothing of worth to be divided amongst his family except bad memories and regrets.
15 These photographs were registered with the Victorian Patents Office Copyright Collection (VPOCC) are known as the Kelly Gang photographs.
16 The photograph can be viewed on-line at http://search.slv.vic.gov.au/primo_library/libweb/action/display.do?ct=display&doc=SLV_VOYAGER1708225&indx=11&vid=MAIN&vl(freeText0)=william%20edward%20barnes&ct=Next%20Page&fn=search&indx=11&frbg=&srt=rank&tab=defau lt_tab&mode=Basic&dum=true.
17 Photographers' index 1901-1920, compiled by Christine Downer, 1995. Sources used are the Wise's Post Office Directories and the Sands & MacDougall's Directory series. Recently donated to the Pictures Collection.
166
18 VPRS 28/P/0003. Inquest record 1916/545.
19 Ibid.
20 Accession no: H 39357/1-.
21 VPRS 28/P/Inquest record 1901/1230.
22 VPRS 515/P000. Central Register of Male Prisoners. Unit 46, folio 66. These photographs are currently unavailable for consultation owing to their fragility, and are to be digitised. The reference to Rudd as photographer in the Deeming case is taken from Maurice Guvitch and Christopher Wray, The scarlet Thread: Australia's Jack the Ripper, Sydney: Fairfax Books, 2007.
23 VPRS 28/P/Inquest record 1901/1230.
24 Ibid.

Father and Son: John Goulson Burtt and John Wesley Burtt

1 Pictures Collection, State Library of Victoria. H92.196.
2 Pictures Collection, State Library of Victoria. H2335.
3 Personal communication from Pamela Bell, valuer for the Cultural Gift program.
4 Report from Maxwell Hall, Art Conservator, to the Picture Collection, State Library of Victoria, 4 March 1982.
5 J. W. Burtt, New Historical Painting - Batman's Treaty with the Aborigines at Merri Creek, 6th June 1835. Melbourne: Alex McKinley & Co. Not dated. Two copies of the pamphlet are currently known. Both are in the National library of Australia. One copy is in the J. A. Ferguson collection, F13167, and the other in the Petherick Collection, Petherick Pamphlet 2689. Both copies have had the date of publication erased. The Petherick copy is further altered, to have Empire removed from Burtt's address of 'Empire Chambers, Collins st. West, Melbourne'. In addition there are two notes, in different handwriting, on this copy. On the cover at the top of the page 'Picture framed & in Petherick Library'. And on page 3 'For Sale To be seen at Mr Wise's rooms 317 Collins street, Melbourne. Price £250 Guineas'.
6 Joan Kerr, ed, The Dictionary of Australian Artists, Painters, Sketchers, Photographers and Engravers to 1870, Melbourne: Oxford University Press, 1992. pp. 119-120.
7 Bain Attwood with Helen Doyle, Possession: Batman's treaty and the matter of history. Carlton, Victoria: Miegunyah Press, 2009.
8 Kathleen Thomson and Geoffrey Serle, A Biographical Register of the Victorian Parliament, 1851-1900. Canberra: Australian national University Press, 1972. Alternatively see: http://www.parliament.vic.gov.au/re-member/bioregsearch.cfm.
9 This connection was also made by historian Susan Priestley, when the Royal Historical society donated the plaque to the library in 2005.
10 See http://www.ancestrylibrary.com/ to access English Civil registration indexes and records, and the 1851 England Census records.
11 Peter Whitfiled, London: a life in maps, London: The British Library, 2006. pp. 126-129.
12 Public Record Office of Victoria, Index to Unassisted Inward Passenger Lists to Victoria. John Goulson Burtt aged 43 arrived at Melbourne in April 1853 on the Strathfieldsaye.
13 'Melbourne Zinc Works, J G Burtt's new premises in Russell Street'. Advertisement in the Argus 21 June 1856, p. 6. The Argus Shipping Intelligence – importations of 60 boxes of tin plates, 16 cases galvanised iron and other goods by J G Burtt, 29 October 1856 p. 4.
14 Public Record Office Victoria, Index to Unassisted Inward Passenger Lists to Victoria 1852-1923, lists the Burtt Family arriving on The Eagle in April 1858. This gives the names and ages of the family as John G Burtt aged 48, Mary Anne (48), Frederick (16), Mary A (11), William (11) and Edwin (9).
15 John Tanner, Tanner's Melbourne Directory for 1859. Melbourne: John Tanner, [1859?].
16 See Butler and Brooke's National Directory of Victoria for 1866-67. Melbourne : Butler & Brooke, 1866.
167
17 Stuart Macintyre, A Concise History of Australia, Port Melbourne, Vic: Cambridge University Press, 2009. p. 80.
18 Table Talk, 'Anecdotal photograph: Mr. J. G. Burtt', 12 June 1896, pp. 3-4.
19 For background information on the Chartists see David Goodway, London Chartism 1838-1848, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982.
20 For example, see The English Chartist Circular and Temperance Record for England and Wales: London: J. Cleave, 1841-1844.
21 Calvin K. H. Ma, The Church in the Heart of Melbourne: an historical sketch of Swanston Street Church of Christ, 1855-1995. Melbourne: Swanston Street Church of Christ, 1995.
22 Argus, 'Carlton band of Hope', 1 September 1859, p. 6.
23 For a history of the Victorian Land League see: Victorian Convention, Resolutions, Proceedings and Documents of the Victorian Convention: assembled in Melbourne, July 15 to August 6, 1857 Melbourne: Published for the Council of the Convention by J. J. Walsh, 1857. Joseph Toscano, The Victorian Land Convention, Parkville, Vic: Anarchist Media Institute, 2007. Also Macintyre 2009, pp. 86-97.
24 Argus, 20 January 1857, p. 5.
25 Table Talk, 12 June 1896.
26 Thompson and Serle. Interviewed by Talk Talk in 1896 Burtt still regarded being opposed by one of his fellow temperance members an affront.
27 For discussion of early Victorian politics see Raymond Wright, A People's Counsel: a history of the parliament of Victoria. South Melbourne, Vic.: Oxford University Press, 1992.
28 See Melbourne Punch, 30 May 1872, p. 170 and 'Slated Already, or the return of the third batch', 23 April 1874, p. 163.
29 Tocsin, 'The late Mr J. G.Burtt: Reformer and Politician', 16 May 1901, p. 8; Australian Christian, 23 May 1901, p. 220; Argus, 22 April 1901 p. 5; and Australian Ironmonger 1901 p. 302.
30 Victoria Parliament Parliamentary Debates [Hansard]: Legislative Council and Legislative Assembley, Melbourne: Government Printer, 1870, p. 468; Sydney Morning Herald, 9 December 1870, p. 5.; Argus 9 December 1870, p. 5.
31 Argus, Letter to the editor from John P. Fawkner, 'The Threatened demonstration on Behalf of the Assembly', 10 February 1866, p. 6; Argus, Letter to the Editor, 'Mr Burtt', 10 January 1868, p. 5.
32 Melbourne Punch, 31 August 1871, p. 65.
33 Argus, Letter to the Editor 'Wanted – a third man for Collingwood', 17 January 1868, p. 6; Argus, 'City of Fitzroy Election' 30 April 1879, p. 8; Melbourne Punch 7 March 1872, p. 73.
34 Table Talk, 12 June 1896.
35 Mary Anne Burtt 'beloved wife of J.G. Burtt (formerly M.L.A. for North Melbourne)' died 15 May 1892, Argus 18 May 1892 p. 1. Her daughter, also Mary Anne, had married John Frederick Dunning in 1875. Dunning was an estate agent and auctioneer who ran a business from various addressed in Collins Street or Russell Street until his death in 1899. The Dunnings lived in King William Street, Fitzroy. Their own house has been demolished, but the Dunning family name lives on in Fitzroy, for example the terrace in Gore Street named 'Malvina' after his mother. Mary Anne Dunning died in 1923 at St Kilda.
36 Edwin, 'clerk in the Victorian Railways Audit Office' died in 1868 (Argus 13 November 1868, p. 8). Frederick Gouldson died 'at the residence of his father, Kensington, after a protracted illness' in 1873 (Argus 8 May 1873, p. 4). William, who had moved to Sydney and operated a Jewellery store in George Street, died in 1885 (Sydney Morning Herald, 21 April 1885, p. 1). His father and eldest brother travelled to Sydney at this time (Argus 20 April 1885, p. 5), presumably for the funeral or his burial in Waverly Cemetery. The other brothers were buried with their mother in the Melbourne General Cemetery (see: Victorian Cemetery Records, Melbourne: State Library of Victoria 1959, record no. 4869 to 4874). Some family dynamics may be inferred from the will and probate record
168
for Frederick. In his will he left his entire estate to his mother, 'for her use and benefit and free from the control of her husband.'(VPRS 7591 File no. 10/758) During the probate as 'Taking of any oath is according to my religion unlawful' Mrs Burtt unable to swear in Court. Frederick's estate was worth 262. It is interesting to speculate that it was these funds which allowed the family to move soon afterwards from Kensington to North Fitzroy.
37 Table Talk, 12 June 1896.
38 Register of Patients (VA 2840) Kew. (VPRS 7680 Unit 7 1 Dec 1895-19 March 1905) J. G. Burtt was admitted to Kew on 29th December 1900 by his daughter Mary Anne Dunning. He died there on 21 April 1901, and his death certificate contains little information.
39 Will of John Goulson Burtt (VPRS 28 File no. 92/284). Probate was not granted until 1904.
40 Will of Mary Anne Dunning (VPRS 28 File no. 190/440).
41 Sands & McDougall's, Melbourne and Suburban Directory, Melbourne: Sands & McDougall, 1860.
42 Kerr, ed, Dictionary of Artists.
43 Argus, 31 July 1869, p. 5. No catalogue of the Sandhurst Fine Arts Exhibition of 1869 has been identified.
44 Argus, 1 April 1871, p. 7.
45 In the State Library Picture Collection (H17277) there is a colonial portrait of Sir Charles Darling KCB. It was donated to the Art Gallery in 1890 by Sir W.A.C. a'Beckett. The artist has not been identified, and Library staff have speculated this portrait is the one exhibited by John Wesley in 1870. I think this is unlikely. The artist, and his father, were both alive when the portrait was donated to the Gallery, and I am sure John Wesley would have sought acknowledgement from the gallery if this had been his own painting.
46 Report of the Trustees of the Public Library, Museum and National Gallery of Victoria. Schedule K, A List of the Pictures Copied in the National Gallery during the year 1871, p. 43.
47 Victoria Parliament Parliamentary debates [Hansard]: Legislative Council and Legislative Assembly, Melbourne: Government Printer, 4 March 1869, p. 137.
48 Argus, 5 March 1869, p. 6.
49 Argus, 27 August 1869, p. 4.
50 Ibid.
51 Advertisement in the Argus 30 September 1869, p. 3.
52 Progress reports on the Artisans School can be found in Argus on 25 Oct 1869, pp. 4-5, On the 18 December 1869, p. 4, and 17 January 1870, p. 4.
53 Argus, 19 April 1870, p. 4.
54 Ibid.
55 Pictures Collection, State Library of Victoria. H2009.49/7.
56 Melbourne Punch, 'Lottery prizes' 24 September 1874, p. 382.
57 See for example his advertisement in Argus 2 March 1871, p. 8.
58 The "Melbourne Art Union' was announced in the Argus on 23 December 1872 p. 4. Burtts' art union advertisement appears in the Argus 25 March 1873, p. 8.
59 Argus, Letter to the Editor from Marcus Clarke, 'The Dancing Girl in the Public Gallery', 15 July 1873, p. 6.
60 For a discussion on this issue see Trustees Report of the Public Library, Museum and Art Gallery for 1873-74, p. 2. For background information on the disagreement between photographer Charles Nettleton and Marcus Clarke see; Argus, 1 September 1873 p. 6 and 6 September 1873 p. 6. And for the review of the final photographic series Argus 13 February 1875, p. 6.
61 Brisbane Courier, 9 September 1876, p. 5.
62 Ibid.
63 First Exhibition of the Victorian Academy of Art Melbourne W. H. Williams, 1870. Page 4 lists John Wesley Burtt as a member and J. G. Burtt, M.L.A. as a subscriber.
169
64 MS 7593. Victorian Artist's Society, Australian Manuscripts Collection, State Library of Victoria. Letter from John W. Burtt to the Academy, 28 February 1870.
65 See Sands & McDougall's Melbourne and Suburban Directory, Melbourne: Sands & McDougall, for 1870 onwards.
66 Argus, 28 April 1888, p. 13; and the Sydney Morning Herald, 28 April 1888 p. 14. 'The German Turn Verein to-night presented the president Herr W. Weisbaden, with his portrait in oil, by J. Westley (sic) Burtt, as a mark of honour for his services to the society. . . Baron Von Mueller made the presentation.'
67 Colonial and Indian Exhibition, Official Catalogue, London: William Clowes and Sons, 1886.
68 Rate books for Fitzroy, held by PROV with copies in the Local History collection at Carlton library. Sands and MacDougall directories from 1875 to 1890.
69 See Supplement to the Argus 27 November 1867, for a description of the Illuminations in the city for the visit of the Prince of Wales in 1867. Includes a description of premises of John Young and Son, silversmiths and jewellers, Stephen street- ' an allegorical design, painted by J. W. Burtt, of the civil service, representing the Arts, with a view of the Bay and Port Phillip Heads in the Centre . . .'.
70 Table Talk, 23 December 1892, p. 3.
71 Centennial International Exhibition, Official Record Catalogue of Exhibitions, Tasmanian Court. Class 2, Various Paintings etc, Cat no. 22. Burtt, J.W. First Victorian Land Syndicate. p. 565.
72 Pictures Collection, State Library of Victoria. In 2005 the Royal Historical Society of Victoria donated this wooden plaque to the State Library of Victoria. It contains almost identical text to the lithograph key. H2006.136.
73 'Batman Centenary: Loan Historical Exhibition, Argus 6 June 1935, p. 10.
74 Bain Attwood. See Chapters 4, 'Creating a Legend' and 5, 'Remembering Batman'.
75 Attwood, p. 144.
76 Shane Carmody, 'John Batman's Place in the Village', La Trobe Journal, no. 80, Spring 2007, pp. 85 - 101.
77 Letter from Mr Blackden Worsley to the Chief Librarian, Public Library and National Gallery of Art, 28 September 1932.
78 Sands and Mcdougall directories for 1890 to 1896.
79 Attwood, p. 107 and p. 117.
80 Both Table Talk in (12 June) 1896 and the letter from Mr Blackden Worsley to the Chief Librarian on 28 September 1932, mention the painting hanging in the Treasury Building during 1896-1897. I have been unable to find any corroborating evidence in records from the Victorian Parliament or the Governor General at the PROV.
81 Exhibition of Australian Manufactures and Products, Promoted by the Metropolitan Committee of the Australian Natives Association, Exhibition Building, Melbourne: January 16th to February 23rd, 1907: souvenir catalogue. Melbourne: H. Hearne & Co, 1907. The 'Paintings exhibited by J.W. Burtt' are listed on p. 119.
82 Andrew Brown-May, et al, The Encyclopaedia of Melbourne, Port Melbourne, Vic: Cambridge University Press, 2005.
83 Exhibition of Australian Manufactures and Products, p. 7.
84 For details of Haines life see ADB : http://adbonline.anu.edu.au/biogs/A040358b.htm
85 For reports on the case in the St Kilda Court see 'An Australian Picture : Ownership in Dispute', Argus 25 January 1911, p. 15, or 'Who owner the Picture?: a curious case', Age 25 January 1911, p. 12. For reports on the appeal see 'Batman and the Natives : Claim for a painting' The Argus 16 February 1911, p. 9, or 'Adventures of a picture: Batman's Treaty with the Aborigines", Age 16 February 1911, p. 10. See also Edward A. Petherick, 'Bibliography of Victoria', Victorian Historical Magazine, Vol II, no. 4, December 1912, p. 180. Petherick includes a potted history of the exhibition and dispute over the painting.
170
86 Auction notice in Argus 11 February 1910, p. 2.
87 Age, 25 January 1911, p. 12.
88 Ibid.
89 Letter from the Chief Librarian of the Public Library to Mr B. Worsley of Union Road Surrey Hills, 29 April 1932.
90 Correspondence between the Chief Librarian of the Public Library and the Town clerk's Office, City of Northcote, April 1932.
91 Trustees of the Public Library, Museums, and the National Gallery of Victoria, Guide to the Victorian Historical Exhibition, Melbourne: Fraser & Jenkinson Pty Ltd, 1934.
92 Ibid.
93 Letter from Mr Blackden Worsley to Ernest Pitt, Chief Librarian 18 December 1941.
94 John Wesley Burtt died on 6 August 1917, Reference no. 1392. However, he is still listed on the 1919 Electoral roll for the Melbourne electorate of Batman (no irony intended).
95 For critique of John Wesley's early paintings see the Argus, 27 August 1869, p. 4; or the review of the First exhibition of the Victorian Academy of Arts in the Argus 1 December 1870, p. 7.
96 Melbourne Punch, 26 January 1871, p. 28. It was to this satirical piece that forced John Wesley to defend his portraits of Sir Charles Darling and Sir James McCulloch in the Argus 1 April 1871, p. 7.
97 Pictures Collection, State Library of Victoria. Frederick Woodhouse, The First Settlers Discover Buckley, oil on canvas, 1861. (H26103) and H.L. van den Houten, Batman's First Meeting with Buckley, oil on canvas, 1878. (H13794).
98 MS 10768, Australian Manuscript Collection, SLV John Helder Wedge, Field Book. 1835-1836.
99 Attwood, pp. 229-232.
100 Argus 'Stories Behind Victoria's Centenary: How Batman bought Melbourne, 6 December, 1934, p. 3. The caption below the reproduction of Burtt's painting says 'The picture was painted about 1889 by J.W. Burtt on the spot (then well known) where the treaty took place.'
101 Auction notice in the Argus. 11 February 1910, p. 2.

The Mystery of the Peruvian photographs

1 In fact, of the 132 images that make up the album, 129 are of Peru and Peruvians, one (plate 42) is of the Brazilian coast, and two of Japanese people.
2 Vistas del Peru, H86.114/1-132, LTWEF 2, Pictures Collection, State Library of Victoria.
3 A fixed location number is written on the back fly leaf of the album. Before the Library implemented the Dewey classification system in 1915, Library holdings were given fixed location codes to enable retrieval. The fixed location register would tell the librarian which cabinet and shelf any given item was on. Sometimes these registers are annotated with accession numbers which can be looked up in registers housed in the Australian Manuscripts Collection, and here one can find information about the source and date of acquisition, and often the price paid for purchases. In the case of the Peru album, alas, no such information was recorded.
4 A number of copies, including a 'working copy', with blank pages inserted for new acquisitions to be added, are now in the Library's Rare Books Collection, RARES 018.1 V66C (1880).
5 Keith McElroy, 'Eugenio Courret and the Courret Archive in Lima, Peru', History of Photography, vol. 24, no. 2, Summer 2000, p. 125.
6 Wikipedia, 2008, 'The Guano Era', http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guano_Era_(Peru) (accessed 18 September 2009).
7 Juan Carlos Calligros, 'Reinventing the City of the Kings: postcolonial modernizations of Lima, 1845-1930', [thesis], University of Florida, 2007, p. 140, Proquest Dissertations & Theses, http://gradworks.umi.com/33/11/3311620.html (accessed 6 September 2008).
171
8 'The Peruvian Exposition', The New York Times, 10 May 1871, p. 2; http://query.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=9907EFD71F30EE34BC4852DFB366838A669FDE (accessed 19 Nov. 2007).
9 McElroy, 'Eugenio Courret', p. 123.
10 Vistas del Peru, Pictures Collection, State Library of Victoria, plate 44. Identified from Recuerdos del Peru, (vol. 2 no. 9) a set of two volumes by Courret Hermanos, held by the Library of Congress, Washington, U.S.A.
11 McElroy, 'Eugenio Courret', pp. 124-125. Further, a short news item, in Spanish, is featured on YouTube, describing the archive of Courret photographs in the National Library of Peru, and discussing the significance of this firm's influence in the recording of Peru's history. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xIul8K6ZetY&feature=share (accessed 23 September 2011). Many thanks to John Arnold for drawing my attention to this item.
12 Keith McElroy, Early Peruvian Photography: a critical case study, Ann Arbor, Michigan,: UMI Research Press, 1985, fig. 39. Information about the monument is also given, so we learn the architect was Gullaume and the artist Gugnot.
13 McElroy, Early Peruvian Photography, fig.17a.
14 McElroy, Early Peruvian Photography, p. 29.
15 Courret Hermanos Recuerdos del Peru, vol 2, no 9, Library of Congress, LOT 4831 (H) [P&P]; Catalog http://lcweb2.loc.gov/pp/cphquery.html (accessed 16 July 2009).
16 Recuerdos del Peru, vol. 1, no. 16.
17 Recuerdos del Peru, vol. 2, no. 18.
18 Calligros, pp. 151-152.
19 Dorothy Sloan Books, Auction, http://www.dsloan.com/Auctions/A22/item-photography-limapano.htm, (accessed 9 July 2009).
20 Correspondence with Dorothy Sloan, 6 August 2009.
21 The Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division has digitised its copy on their website at: http://lcweb2.loc.gov/pp/pphome.html (accessed 16 July 2009).
22 Calligros, p. 144.
23 McElroy, Early Peruvian Photography, p. 71.
24 McElroy, Early Peruvian Photography, p. 45.
25 Vistas del Peru, plates 58, 105, 106 and 108.
26 Wikipedia, 2008, 'The Guano Era'.
27 Manuel A. Fuentes, Lima or Sketches of the Capital of Peru. Historical, Statistical, Administrative, Commercial and Moral, London: Trubner & Co., 1866, p. 75 ff. Fuentes' book is not held by the State Library but is available on Google books, and is also analysed and discussed by Deborah Poole, Vision, Race and Modernity: a visual economy of the Andean image world, Princeton, (NJ): Princeton University Press, 1997. Fuentes' influential beliefs were later discarded by the Peruvians, who blamed the loss of the war with Chile on the weakness of their races. (Calligros, p. 172).
28 A detailed discussion of this area of study and writing is beyond the scope of this essay, but interested readers should see for example, the collected essays in Elizabeth Edwards, ed., Anthropology and photography, 1860-1929, New Haven and London: Yale University Press in association with the Royal Anthropological Institute, London, 1992.
29 Poole, p. 149.
30 Poole, p. 164.
31 Poole, p. 166.
32 Michel Francois Braive, The Era of the Photograph: a social history, London: Thames and Hudson, 1966, p. 101.
33 McElroy, Early Peruvian Photography, fig.17a.
34 Arcadja Auction Results, (2007), http://www.arcadja.com/auctions/en/courret_eugenio/artist/190230/ (accessed 26 September 2011).
172
35 Poole, pp. 155-156.
36 A search on these photographers' names in the Library's catalogue will display a number of examples of their work held by the State Library of Victoria. For a discussion of von Stillfried's work, see Luke Gartlan, 'Views and costumes of Japan: a photograph album by Baron Raimund von Stillfried-Ratenicz' La Trobe Journal, no. 76, (Spring 2005), pp. 5-26.
37 Felice Beato, [Sumo wrestlers and umpire], 1860s. A reproduction appears in Shashin: nineteenth century Japanese studio photography, Melbourne, National Gallery of Victoria, 2004, plate 26.
38 MIT Visualising Cultures, Alona C. Wilson, (2008) 'Felice Beato's Japan: People', http://ocw.mit.edu/ans7870/21f/21f.027/beato_people/index.html (accessed 13 April 2009). All other information about the 'Mode of Shampooing' image is also from this site.
39 Wikipedia, 2005, 'Felice Beato', http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Felice_Beato (accessed 18 April 2009)
40 A group of 790 Japanese were the first to emigrate to Peru in April 1899. Information from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan, (2008) http://www.mofa.go.jp/region/latin/peru/index.html (accessed 3 March 2009). For more detail on this subject see: The Asia-Pacific Journal: Japan Focus http://www.japanfocus.org/products/details/2517 (accessed 3 March 2009).
41 China Daily, Alexandra Leyton Espinoza, (2009) 'Exhibition reveals Chinese legacy in Peru", http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/metro/2009-12/07/content_9129333.htm, (accessed 11 Feb 2010).
42 Wikipedia, (2009) 'Eugenio Courret', http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eugenio_Courret, (accessed 18 April 2009).
43 McElroy, 'Eugenio Courret', p. 125.
44 Sir Redmond Barry, Papers, MS 8380, Box 600/4 (g), 'List of Publications of the Engineers Department, U.S. Army sent, through the Smithsonian Institution to the Public Library of Melbourne, Victoria, at the request of Sir Redmond Barry, Prest.', Washington D.C., May 15, 1876, Australian Manuscripts Collection, State Library of Victoria.
45 Correspondence with the Free Library of Philadelphia, 21 February 2009.
46 An extensive check of State Library of Victoria Correspondence from Europe, Consignments and other records at the Public Records Office, (VPRS 1074, 1066, 1071, 5831) brought no information to light. A search of sources at the State Library including Stock Books and Accession Books (1872-1882), Gallery Committee Minutes (MS 12855), and Annual Reports (Report of the Trustees of the Public Library, Museums and National Gallery of Victoria ...) from 1871-1881, also proved fruitless.
47 Paris Universal Exposition of 1878, The Illustrated Catalogue of the Paris International Exhibition, London: Virtue & Co., 1878, p. xx.
48 Victoria. Royal Commission for the International Exhibition, Paris, 1878, Report of the Commissioner for Victoria to his Excellency, the Governor, Melbourne, Vic.: J. Ferres, Govt. Printer, 1879, p. 13.
49 Report of the Commissioner ..., 1879, p. 5.
50 State Library of Victoria, Records, MS 12855, MSF vol. 13a 'Minutes of the Library & Book Committee', 29 July 1878 and MSF vol. 57 'Minutes of Gallery Committee', 29 July 1878, Australian Manuscripts Collection, State Library of Victoria.
51 Public Library, Museums and National Gallery, Report of the Trustees of the National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne: Government Printer, 1879, p. 56.
52 Accession Book, 1879, pp. 106-111, 120-124, 128, Australian Manuscripts Collection, State Library of Victoria.
53 The acquisition of European and Asian works and the commissioning of Victorian views is well discussed and analysed in the following essays by Christine Downer: 'Portfolios for the Curious: Photographic Collecting by the Melbourne Public Library 1859-1870', in Ann Galbally, et al, The First Collections: the Public Library and the National Gallery of Victoria in the 1850s and the 1860s: University Gallery, the University of Melbourne Museum of Art 14 May – 15 July 1992, Parkville Vic.: The Museum, 1992, pp. 73-79; 'Pictures In Victoria – Images As Records In The La Trobe Library
173
Picture Collection', La Trobe Journal, no 50 (Spring 1992) pp. 12-19; and 'Notes on Barry and the Origins of the Picture Collection', La Trobe Journal, no. 73 (Autumn 2004) pp. 95-100.

Momentous for Time and Eternity

1 Hortense, 'The glass of fashion', The Sun, 9 January 1891, p. 9. The writer was here making a general statement about brides having their bridal photographs taken on return from the honeymoon.
2 The actual photograph measures 37.0 × 29.4 cm and is mounted on a cream card 41.4 × 31.5 cm.
3 The history of the Henty family's colonial enterprise has been well documented by Marnie Bassett in The Hentys: an Australian colonial tapestry, Melbourne: Oxford University Press, 1954.
4 In late 933 Professor W. A. Osborn was invited to write a commentary on Australia for visitors to the country during Victoria's Centenary celebrations. He described the Australian Aboriginal as a 'Stone Age man' who practised 'magic' and suffered from a 'deficiency of game and water'. W. A. Osborn, The Visitor to Australia, Melbourne: Sir Isaac Pitmen & Sons, 1934, pp. 87–90.
5 'Lauderdale', 'Introduction', Victoria's Representative Men at Home: Punch's Illustrated Interviews, Melbourne: Punch Office, 1904, np.
6 Mrs [Marion] Henty, Diary, State Library of Victoria (hereafter SLV), MS 7664.
7 Marion Henty, Diary, SLV, MS 10449.
8 The letter is dated 23 May 1892 and is in the Henty-Armstrong papers, SLV, MS 7664.
9 Balayeuse is a French term that literally means 'street-sweeper'.
10 'An emblem of power', Supplement to the Kew Mercury, 10 January 1890, p. 2.
11 'Death of Mrs T. H. Armstrong', Church of England Messenger, 29 June 1928, p. 309.
12 'Weddings, The Sun, 27 May 1892, p. 13; Victorian Shopping: Harrod's Catalogue 1895, Alison Adburgham (intro.), Newton Abbott, Devonshire: David and Charles 1972 [1895], pp. 875-5.
13 There is no evidence that Mendelssohn personally came to the colony.

The Search for Artistic Professionalism in Melbourne

1 Alan & Susan McCulloch & Emily McCulloch Childs, The New Encyclopedia of Australian Art, Melbourne: Miegunyah Press, 2006, p. 295.
2 Buonarotti Club Minutes, 1883-1887, MS10977, State Library of Victoria (hereafter Buonarotti Club Minutes). Meeting held in May 1883. Note that there is also a second set of records at MS 12966. These are referred to here as Buonarotti Club Minutes (2).
3 Buonarotti Club Minutes.
4 Leslie A. Schumer, 'Young and Jackson's', Royal Historical Society of Victoria Journal, vol. 54, no. 1, March 1983, p. 45.
5 Alison Inglis, 'The gift of John Connell to the National Gallery of Victoria', in Andrew Grimwade & Gerard Vaughan, eds, Great Philanthropists on Trial: the art of the bequest, Melbourne: Miegunyah Press, 2005, pp. 157-158.
6 Buonarotti Club Minutes.
7 Christine Downer, Artists' Societies in Colonial Victoria, 1853-1888: the search for identity, (MA Thesis), University of Melbourne, 1981-1982.
8 Buonarotti Club Minutes (2).
9 'News of the day', Age, 6 October 1884, p. 4.
10 Paula Gillett, Worlds of Art: painters in Victorian society, New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1990, pp. 217-224.
11 Paula Gillett, 'Art audiences at the Grosvenor Gallery', in Susan P. Casteris & Colleen Denney (eds), The Grosvenor Gallery: a palace of art in Victorian England, London: Yale University Press, 1996, pp. 39-58.
174
12 The Buonarotti Club's spelling of Michelangelo Buonarroti's surname differs from that found in modern texts. The Club's version contains one letter 'r' and two of 't', while the modern spelling has two of 'r' and one 't'. The club debated this point and after the secretary, Rodney G. Cherry, 'submitted a list of authorities'; members 'considered the balance of evidence' and chose Buonarotti as their preferred spelling at a meeting held on 2/06/1883. Buonarotti Club Minutes.
13 Lene Østermark-Johansen, Sweetness and Strength: the reception of Michelangelo in late Victorian England, Aldershot, Hants.: Ashgate, 1998.
14 Østermark-Johansen.
15 Edward Gilks, 'An antipodean club: An account of the Melbourne fine art club, called "The Buonarotti Club" after Michel Angelo Buonarotti'. MS10116, State Library of Victoria.
16 Buonarotti Club Minutes (2).
17 Ibid.
18 Michelangelo Buonarroti, Le Rime, Rome, 1817.
19 Buonarotti Club Minutes.
20 Humphrey McQueen, Tom Roberts, Sydney: Macmillan, 1996, p. 301.
21 Buonarotti Club Minutes (2).
22 Ada Cherry quoted in L. T. Luxton, 'The Buonarotti Club: Bohemians of the 'eighties': Memories of noted artists', Argus Camera Supplement, 10 August 1929, p. 3.
23 Buonarotti Club Minutes (2).
24 Buonarotti Club Minutes (2). This definition appears in Hugh Percy Jones, ed., Dictionary of Foreign Phrases and Classical Quotations, Edinburgh: John Grant, 1913, p. 22.
25 Buonarotti Club Minutes (2).
26 Meeting held on 5 March 1885. Buonarotti Club Minutes.
27 Ann G. Carew, Wealth Glitter Grime on the Flowing Tide: representing the Port of Melbourne on the Yarra 1840-1920, (MA Thesis), University of Melbourne, 2006, pp. 1 & 2.
28 Buonarotti Club Minutes (2).
29 Thomas Darragh, 'Mason, Cyrus', Joan Kerr, ed, The Dictionary of Australian Artists: painters, sketchers, photographers and engravers to 1870, Melbourne: Oxford University Press, 1992, p. 520.
30 Buonarotti Club Minutes (2).
31 Ibid.
32 Ibid.
33 Richard D. Altick, Paintings from Books: art and literature in Britain, 1760-1900, Columbus, Ohio: Ohio State University Press, 1985, p. 158.
34 Meeting held on 1 Ocotber 1884. Buonarotti Club Minutes.
35 Mary Eagle & John Jones, A story of Australian Painting, Sydney: Macmillan, 1994, p. 97.
36 Buonarotti Club Minutes (2).
37 Ibid.
38 Meeting held on 1 October 1884. Buonarotti Club Minutes.
39 Lefebvre, Jules. AAA File held at the State Library of Victoria (SLV).
40 Ibid.
41 Ibid.
42 Keith Dunstan, 'Ode to a Nude', Bulletin, 23 May 1995, p. 38.
43 Stephanie Holt, 'Chloe: a curious history', Jeanette Hoorn, ed., Strange Women: essays in art and gender, Carlton, Vic.: Melbourne University Press, 1994, p. 134.
44 Meeting held on 11 September 1886. Buonarotti Club Minutes.
45 Caroline Jordan, 'Fletcher's of Collins Street: Melbourne's leading nineteenth century art dealer, Alexander Fletcher', La Trobe Journal, no. 75, Autumn 2005, p. 83.
46 McQueen, 1996, p. 151.
175
47 Alison Inglis, 'Aestheticism and Empire: the Grosvenor Gallery Inter-colonial Exhibition in Melbourne, 1887', (unpublished manuscript), Melbourne, August 2007, p. 12.
48 Meeting held on 25 May 1886. Buonarotti Club Minutes.
49 Ibid.
50 Helen Topliss, The Artists' Camps: 'Plein Air' painting in Melbourne, Melbourne: Hedley Australia, 1992, p. 65.
51 Meeting held on 4 April 1884. Buonarotti Club Minutes.
52 Buonarotti Club Minutes.
53 Buonarotti Club Minutes.
54 Buonarotti Club Minutes.
55 Ann Galbally, Frederick McCubbin, Melbourne: Hutchinson, 1981, p. 59.
56 Louis Lavater quoted in Luxton, 1929, p. 3.
57 Ibid.
58 Ibid.
59 Topliss, 1992, p. 65. Andrew MacKenzie, The Artists' Journey: discovering the Victorian coastline 1840-1910, Mornington, Vic.: Mornington Peninsula Regional Gallery, 2004.
60 Buonarotti Club Minutes.
61 Buonarotti Club Minutes.
62 William Splatt & Susan Bruce, Australian Impressionist Painters: a pictorial history of the Heidelberg School, Melbourne: Currey O'Neil, Melbourne, 1981, p. 103. Jane Clark & Bridget Whitelaw, Golden Summers: Heidelberg and beyond, (exhibition catalogue), Melbourne: National Gallery of Victoria, 1985, p. 11.
63 William Moore, A Story of Australian Art: from the earliest known art of the continent to the art of today, Sydney: Angus & Robertson, 1934, vol. 1, photograph titled 'National Art School, Group of Students, 1887' between pp. 226-227.
64 Clark & Whitelaw, Golden Summers, p. 11. Eagle, 1994, p. 82.
65 Ada Cherry quoted in Luxton, 1929, p. 3. The photograph came from the Cherry Family Papers and was dated 1885 by Ada Cherry who was a member of the Buonarotti Club and daughter of the founder, Cyrus Mason.
66 Ada Cherry quoted in Luxton, 1929, p. 3.
67 Patricia G. Berman, 'Edvard Munch's Self portrait with Cigarette: smoking and the Bohemian persona', Art Bulletin, December 1993, p. 645.
68 Ada Cherry quoted in Luxton, 1929, p. 3.
69 Ibid.
70 Andrew Montana, The Art Movement in Australia: design, taste and society 1875-1900, Melbourne: Miegunyah Press, 2000, p. 43.
71 Ada Cherry quoted in Luxton, 1929, p. 3. McQueen, 1996, p. 139.
72 Buonarotti Club Minutes (2).
73 Meeting held on 16 June 1883. Buonarotti Club Minutes.
74 Buonarotti Club Minutes (2).
75 McQueen, 1996, p. 164.
76 Eagle, 1994, p. 83.
77 Victoria Hammond & Juliet Peers, Completing the Picture: women artists in the Heidelberg era, Hawthorn East, Vic.: Artmoves, 1992.
78 Buonarotti Club Minutes.
79 Louis Lavater quoted in Luxton, 1929, p. 3.
80 Meeting held on 23 August 1887.
81 Ibid.
176

Notes on Contributors

John Arnold is the editor of the La Trobe Journal.
John Barnes, the previous editor of the La Trobe Journal, has completed a biography of Charles Joseph La Trobe and is now looking for a publisher.
Christine [Downer] Bell worked in the Pictures Collection at the State Library of Victoria from 1981 to 2001.
Maggie Black is a writer, editor and journalist based in Oxford, UK, whose previous published work mainly relates to international development. The Western District pastoralist, Niel Black 1804-1880, is her great-grandfather.
Peter Dowling is a freelance art curator who otherwise works as a self-employed gardener. He is currently on a contract with Hamilton Art Gallery researching the colonial Australian artist, Thomas Clark, for an exhibition to be held in 2013.
Gerard Hayes is a librarian in the State Library of Victoria's Pictures Collection. He has most recently curated exhibitions at the Library on the Burke and Wills Expedition and the pleinair paintings of Rick Amor.
Alison Inglis is an Associate Professor in the Art History program in the School of Culture and Communication at the University of Melbourne. She has a long-standing interest in the history of the National Gallery of Victoria.
Andrew Lemon, a professional Melbourne historian, wrote the three volume The History of Australian Thoroughbred Racing (Hardie Grant, 2008) and is consultant historian to the Victoria Racing Club. He is President of the Royal Historical Society of Victoria and a former President of the Friends of the State Library of Victoria.
Suzanne McWha is a freelance art and cultural historian. Her article is drawn from a PhD thesis of the same title.
Stephen Mead is a lecturer at Swinburne University of Technology, where he has taught Theory to emerging artists since 2004. He completed his PhD at the University of Melbourne in 2009, investigating artistic Bohemia within Melbourne art societies during the late Victorian period.
Fiona Moore is a former Associate Registrar of the National Gallery of Victoria. She is currently undertaking a PhD in Art History at the University of Melbourne, researching the history of the National Gallery School.
Madeleine Say has been the Picture Librarian at the State Library of Victoria since 2002. She originally trained in the biological sciences, and worked as a research scientist before becoming a librarian.
Olga Tsara is a librarian in the Pictures Collection at the State Library of Victoria. She is currently on secondment to the Library's Australian Manuscripts Collection, where she is working on a number of visual and artists' archives.
Pamela Tuckett is a postgraduate student in the Art History program at the University of Melbourne, currently researching Sir Charles Eastlake and Australia.
Michael Watson, former Senior Librarian at the National Gallery of Victoria, has written a number of articles for Australian periodicals and contributed biographies of Australian artists to the Allgemeines Kuenstlerlexiko.
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The year 1861 saw in Victoria the opening of Museum of Art (the forerunner of the National Gallery of Victoria) in the Melbourne Public Library, the running of the first Melbourne Cup, and the visit of the first international cricket team. Coupled with these symbols of progress was the tragic ending to the Victorian Exploring Expedition with the deaths of Burke and Wills.
Articles in this issue of the La Trobe Journal commemorate these and other events that occurred 150 years ago. Others cover Victoria's first Governor, Charles Joseph La Trobe, a Melbourne bohemian artists' club, and nineteenth-century items in the Pictures Collection in the State Library of Victoria.
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