State Library of Victoria > La Trobe Journal

No 87 May 2011

[Back matter]

178

Endnotes

Making an Exhibition of Ourselves: GLQ History as Public History

1 Martin Smith, Twelve part history series, Campaign, April 1977-March 1978.
2 Robert French, Camping By a Billabong: gay and lesbian stories from Australian History, Sydney: Blackwattle Press, 1993.
3 Garry Wotherspoon, 'From Private Vice to Public History: Homosexuality in Australia', Public History Review, vol. 1, 1992, pp. 148-159.
4 Margaret Bradstock and Louise Wakeling, eds, Words From the Same Heart, Sydney: Hale and Iremonger, 1987.
5 Garry Wotherspoon, Being Different: nine gay men remember, Sydney: Hale & Iremonger, 1986; and his City of the Plain: history of a gay sub-culture, Sydney: Hale and Iremonger, 1991.
6 Denise Thompson, Flaws in the Social Fabric: Homosexuals and society in Sydney, Sydney: George Allen and Unwin, 1985.
7 Raymond Donovan and Leong K. Chan, eds, Gay Lesbian and Queer Studies in Australia, Sydney: Australian Centre for Lesbian and Gay Research, University of Sydney, 1999.
8 See the following note for an explanation for the use of the spelling.
9 Jean Taylor, Brazen Hussies: a herstory of radical activism in the Women's Liberation Movement in Victoria, 1970-1979, Brunswick East, Vic.: Dyke Books, 2009. The use of 'herstory' and 'womyn' reflects a radical feminist respelling to extricate the category 'women' from its linguistic (and therefore social and political) dependence upon the category 'man'.
10 For an overview of the Archives and its collections, see the ALGA website http://www.alga.org.au.
11 David L. Phillips and Graham Willett, eds, Australia's Homosexual Histories: gay and lesbian perspectives V, Sydney and Melbourne: Australian Centre for Lesbian and Gay Research and the Australian Lesbian Gay Archives, 2001; Yorick Smaal and Graham Willett, eds, Out Here: gay and lesbian perspectives VI, Clayton, Vic.: Monash University Publishing, 2011.
12 For example, Smaal and Willett, eds, Out Here.
13 Andrew Murray-Gorman, 'So, Where is Queer? A critical geography of Queer exhibitions in Australia', Museums and Social Issues, vol. 3, no. 1, Spring 2008, pp. 67-80.
14 'Queen City of the South: Melbourne Queer history radio series', http://melbqueerhistory.tripod.com/, accessed 30 July 2010.
15 Mary Beard, The Parthenon, Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 2010, p. 43.
16 The statue is discussed in Shane Carmody's article in this issue.
17 Kate Davison, Lesbian, Bisexual, Gay and Transgender Material Survey, Project Report, Melbourne: Museum Victoria, 2006.
18 Letter to George Bass from Matthew Flinders, 15 February 1800, State Library of New South Wales, MLMSS 7046; http://acms.sl.nsw.gov.au/item/itemDetailPaged.aspx?itemID=412971.
19 Michael Reid, 'Flinders Could've Ranged Further had Bass been not so Straight', Australian, 16 April 1998; Jonathan King, 'The Passionate Circumnavigator', Australian, 21 September 1998; 'Dr Keith Bowden', Australian, 16 October 1998.
20 Bev Roberts, 'Miss Newcomb's Teapot', in this volume.
21 Arthur Groves, unpublished book of verse, Australian Lesbian and Gay Archives.
22 A newspaper search has revealed an article from Paraguay written by Arthur Groves in 1912 which fits the dating of the poems, 'Where Revolutions Rage: Sydney Man in Paraguay', Hobart Mercury, 9 October 1912, p. 3.
23 Ruth Ford, 'Speculating on Scrapbooks, Sex and Desire', Australian Historical Studies, no. 106, 1996, p. 113.
24 Ibid.
179
25 Ibid, p. 113.
26 Ethel May Punshon, Monte-San: The Times Between: life lies hidden, Kobe: Kobe Japan-Australia Society, 1987.
27 'Monte: In Love With a Memory', City Rhythm, no. 30, April/May 1985.

'Phone me up sometime': Melbourne's homosexual subcultures in the interwar years

1 Trial of Harry Bruin and Ben Morris, Public Record Office of Victoria, VPRS 30 Criminal Trial Briefs 1920/100.
2 Geoffrey Blainey, A History of Camberwell, Brisbane: Jacaranda Press, 1964, p. 84.
3 Susan Priestley, Making Their Mark, Sydney: Fairfax, Syme & Weldon, 1984, p. 126.
4 1,076,500 in 1940 – Don Garden, Victoria: a history, Melbourne, Thomas Nelson, 1984, p. 365.
5 Ibid, p. 335.
6 Ibid, p. 292.
7 Janet McCalman, Journeyings: the biography of a middle class generation, 1920-1990, Carlton, Vic: Melbourne University Press, 1993, p. 55.
8 Garden, p. 332.
9 'The Unsexed – Men in Female Form – Woman with Men's Bodies – The Ellis-Weinenger Sex Theory – The Effeminancy of Whitman – Some Famous Homo-Sexuals', Truth, 3 October 1906, p. 12.
10 Garry Wotherspoon, City of the Plain: history of a gay subculture, Sydney: Hale and Iremonger, 1991, p. 68.
11 Trial of James Gore & Selwyn Lindsay, Public Record Office of Victoria, VPRS30 Criminal Trial Briefs, 1925/230.
12 Trial of John Smith & Frederick Boscher, Public Record Office of Victoria, VPRS30 Criminal Trial Briefs, 1921/204.
13 'Queer Exotic Cults Invade Melbourne', Truth, 8 October 1932, p. 8.
14 Truth, 25 June 1938, p. 15.
15 'The Female Impersonators – McKail, Ogilvie & Page Before the Court – Ball for ' Girls Only' Their Alleged Objective', Truth, 5 December 1908, p. 5.
16 Trial of Fred Lee, Public Record Office of Victoria, VPRS30 1926/168.
17 Wotherspoon, p. 71.
18 Ibid, p. 70.
19 'Curious Creatures – Painted and Powdered Effeminates – Is There an 'Intermediate Sex'? – Something Needed to Protect the Young from Perversion', Truth, 19 April 1921, p. 7.
20 'High Caste Indian Mystery Man – Suicided After Serious Charge', Truth, 1 August 1931, p. 9.
21 'Swing Band Musician Dead in St Kilda Flat – £70 Week Star Whistler's Queer Note Before End', Truth, 21 January 1939, p. 11.
22 Ibid.
23 'The Triumphal Car', Argus, 15 October 1919, p. 6.
24 'More Cars in State', Argus, 6 January 1938, p. 4.
25 Garden, p. 341.
26 'The Cars that Ate Melbourne', Age 14 February 2004.
27 Wotherspoon, p. 147.
28 Argus, 16 May 1927, p. 20.
29 Trial of Russell Luke & Stanley Clark, Public Record Office of Victoria, VPRS 30 Criminal Trial Briefs, 1927/349.
30 Ibid.
31 Trial of Alan Barr, Public Record Office of Victoria, VPRS30 Criminal Trial Briefs, 1933/632.
180
32 'Dr Storer Arrested in Studley Park', Truth, 16 September 1939, p. 14.
33 'Railway Finances – Surplus for Year', Argus, 4 September 1924, p. 9.
34 Trial of Ernest Casey, Public Record Office of Victoria, VPRS30 Criminal Trial Briefs, 1925/420.
35 Trial of Harold Porter & Thomas Dillon, Public Record Office of Victoria, VPRS30 Criminal Trial Briefs 1929/917.
36 Trial of Henry Dodd, Public Record Office of Victoria, VPRS30 Criminal Trial Briefs. 1931/642.
37 'Postal Department: The Year's Transactions', West Australian, 15 April 1921, p. 6.
38 'More Telephones', Argus, 18 December 1939, p. 9.
39 'Brighton Exchange: Official Enquiry: "Satisfactory on the Whole"', Argus, 22 July 1914, p. 13.
40 Trial of Lancelot McWilliam, Public Record Office of Victoria, VPRS30 Criminal Trial Briefs 1919/353.
41 'Indecent Photos – Sent Through the Post – Young Man Fined £10', Truth, 10 September 1921, p. 3.
42 'Judge Says Law Should Catch Up With Science – Homily on Homosexuality', Truth, 14 February 1942, p. 5.
43 Graham McInnes, The Road to Gundagai, London: Hamish Hamilton, 1965, p. 61.

The Australia, the Woolshed, and Sexual Gaze

1 I gratefully acknowledge Gary Jaynes' generous help in researching this article. Many of the interviewees quoted in this chapter have been given pseudonyms to protect their privacy.
'For The Block': Illustrated Australian News, 11 July 1868, quoted by Michael Cannon, Life in the Cities. Australia in the Victorian Age, vol. 3, South Yarra, Vic., Currey O'Neil Ross, 1975, 1983, pp. 31-32. 'Doing the Block': Graeme Davison, The Rise and Fall of Marvellous Melbourne, Carlton, Vic.: Melbourne University Press, 1978, p. 201.
2 Gary Simes, A Dictionary of Australian Underworld Slang, South Melbourne, Vic.6: OUP, 1993, pp. 37-38. In Australian slang, 'camp' came to mean homosexual. This was different from in the UK and North America, where, from 1918, it generally meant ostentatiously and effeminately homosexual, or queeny. There, 'to camp' was to behave in the manner of an outrageous queen, or to flaunt one's homosexuality.
3 The Encyclopedia of Melbourne (see following note) and http://www.emelbourne.net.au redresses this with three lesbian and gay-related entries, although its entry for the Hotel Australia does not mention its gay cultural histories.
4 There are some suggestions of a possible gay culture in oral history interviews done by the ALGA but they are somewhat vague and inconclusive.
5 Chrystopher J. Spicer, 'The Hotel Australia,' in Andrew Brown-May & Shurlee Swain, eds, The Encyclopedia of Melbourne, South Melbourne, Vic: Cambridge University Press, 2005, p 43, updated in 'eMelbourne: The City Past and Present', School of Historical Studies, Department of History, The University of Melbourne, updated: 19 November 2009, http://www.emelbourne.net.au/biogs/EM00109b.htm This, unlike other sources, refers to the three cafés as Gunsler's Café Hotel, Vienna Café Hotel and Café Australia Hotel.
6 Judith Buckrich, Collins Street: the story of Australia's premier street, Kew, Vic: Arcadia, Australian Scholarly Publishing, 2005, p. 133, includes more on patrons.
7 'The Female Impersonators – McKail, Ogilvie & Page Before the Court – Ball for "Girls Only" Their Alleged Objective', Truth, 5 December 1908, p. 5, with line illustrations of the three men.
8 Jeff Turnbull and Peter Y. Navaretti, The Griffins in Australia and India: the complete works and projects of Walter Burley Griffin and Marion Mahony Griffin, Carlton South, Vic: The Miegunyah Press, 1998, pp. 135-139.
9 'Bill', born 1916, interviewed by Mark Riley, ALGA, 4 July 2001. This comment is the only known evidence that the Café Australia may have had gay clientele.
10 Jenepher Duncan, Walter Burley Griffin: a re-view, Clayton, Vic.: Monash University Gallery [exhibition catalogue] 1988, p. 44.
181
11 [Collins Street looking east from Block Arcade], State Library of Victoria. Reproduced on page 33 of this issue.
12 Hotel Australia, publicity brochure, 1939, Royal Historical Society Collection, exhibited in the 'Camp as . . . Melbourne in the 1950s' exhibition, City Gallery, Melbourne Town Hall, January 2005.
13 Journal of the Royal Victorian Institute of Architects, September 1939, pp. 191-201.
14 The Prince and its gay life are discussed in Richard Peterson, A Place of Sensuous Resort. buildings of St Kilda and their people, St Kilda Historical Series Number Six, Balaclava, Vic.: St Kilda Historical Society, Edition 2, 2008, chapter 16, at http://www.skhs.org.au/buildings, and Edition 3, current, but unpublished. There is not yet any documentary or oral evidence that the Prince was gay in the two years before the war.
15 Gerald Mayhead, interview 31 May 2010 by Richard Peterson. Mayhead was a journalist at the Age from 1966-74 under the paper's famed editor, Graham Perkin.
16 This supreme irony is from Building, July 1939, pp 43-47, 114 and 115.
17 Gerald Mayhead, 'In which we're served', Age, 20 December 1966, p 7.
18 Ibid.
19 Also spelt 'Tattler' and 'News Reel,' but not on its signage. Daniel Catrice, 'Cinemas in Melbourne. 1896-1942', PhD thesis, Department of History, Monash University 1991, vol. III, pp. 191 and 233.
20 Truth, 17 February 1951. Reference courtesy of Wayne Murdoch, who kindly sent me his summaries of all of the gay references in Truth, from 1902-58. There is no record of whether gaol, or a fine was actually imposed.
21 'Bill', born 1916, interview. Presumably this was one of the two bars entered from behind the stair down to the Bottleshop.
22 'Bill', born 1918, interviewed by Graham Carbery, 19 January 1983, ALGA.
23 'Malcolm' and 'Robert' both born 1927, interviewed by Graham Carbery, 9 November 1993, ALGA.
24 Herald, 21 March 1942, quoted in James Grant & Geoffrey Serle, eds, The Melbourne Scene, 1803-1956, Neutral Bay, NSW: Hale & Iremonger, 1978, p 287, (first published in 1957).
25 Kate Darian-Smith and Rachel Jenzen, Over-Paid, Over-Sexed and Over Here? U.S. Marines in Wartime Melbourne 1943, exhibition catalogue and website, 2010, http://www.history.unimelb.edu.au/overhere/indexmain.html; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Demographics_of_Melbourne suggests Melbourne's population from the 1947 Census was 1,228,000, so the 119,000 US military personnel in Melbourne during World War II probably comprised over 10% of the population.
26 Dennis O'Keefe, born 1937, and Russell Grant, born 1948, interviewed by Graham Carbery, 24 February 2005, ALGA.
27 'Bill', born 1916, interview.
28 Gerald Mayhead interview.
29 Herald, 10 August 1942, p. 3, quoted by Kate Darian-Smith, On the Homefront: Melbourne in wartime, 1939-45, South Melbourne, Vic.: Oxford University Press, 1990, pp. 172 and 173. The Australia's basement bars were public bar. Trading hours were reduced by an hour in Victoria and drinking in public places in the Melbourne metropolitan area was prohibited.
30 '[T]wo women sit chatting in the peaceful and uncrowded bar, while a barmaid carries a bottle back to the bar where a lone man seems engaged in contemplative serious drinking', John Slater, Through Artists Eyes: Australian suburbs and their cities 1919-1945, Carlton, Vic.: Miegunyah Press, 2004, p. 115. Autonomous images depicting Australian pub interiors that included people were then rare, and Slater mentions only two others earlier, a Max Dupain photograph in 1941 of the six-o'clock swill, and a drawing by James Wigley of a bar in Newcastle in 1938.
31 Dennis O'Keefe, born 1937, and Russell Grant, born 1948, interviewed by Graham Carbery, for ALGA, 24 February 2005, discussing photos of Winnie, in the Tommy McDermott (1923-94) photo collection held by ALGA.
32 Gerald Mayhead interview.
33 ALGA Photo Album 2, page 19, photo 19b, 'Barmaids'.
182
34 Gerald Mayhead interview.
35 Barry McKay, born 1938, interviewed by Graham Carbery and Gary Jaynes, ALGA.
36 'Mark,' born 1928, and his friend 'James' interviewed by Graham Carbery and Gary Jaynes, 3 December 2007, ALGA.
37 Gerald Mayhead interview.
38 'Top' and 'bottom': sexually active, or passive.
39 Barry McKay interview.
40 'Mark' and 'James' interview.
41 Street signage for the Collins Street basement public bar is just visible in the Marc Strizic's 1969 photograph, 'Collins Street at Hotel Australia, 1969', reproduced on pages 34-35 in Emma Matthews, ed., Mark Strizic, Melbourne: marvellous to modern, Melbourne: State Library of Victoria/Thames & Hudson, 2009.
42 Gary Jaynes of ALGA, email to Richard Peterson, 15 February 2010, says that a few people have called it the Pink Sink in oral history interviews for ALGA, including with Dennis O'Keefe and Barry McKay, but why green and yellow tiles should be referred to as 'pink,' remains a mystery. Also, 'Bill,' born 1918, interview. Other Melbourne rough basement bars were also known as 'The Snakepit,' including those at the George, Fitzroy Street and the Hotel Esplanade, St Kilda, neither of which were gay.
43 IN Guide: international guide to interesting institutions, New York, 1966. Interestingly, the basement coffee lounge, not the Snakepit, was listed.
44 Steven Roberts recalling the recollection of his late grandmother (b. 1927), in two emails to Richard Peterson, 24 and 25 May 2010.
45 'Malcolm' and 'Robert' interview.
46 Gerald Mayhead, 'In which we're served'.
47 Dennis O'Keefe and Russell Grant interview.
48 'Geoffrey' interviewed by Graham Willett, 20 February 2001, ALGA.
49 Russell Grant, born 1948, interviewed by Graham Willett, 27 January 2005, ALGA.
50 'Edward' interviewed by Barry McKay, 10 November 2000, ALGA. 'Trade' in the UK, invariably means prostitution, but in Australia, whilst it may mean that, it also means potentially attractive and available 'lower class' gay men. 'Beat' in Australia means a place, usually a public toilet, known for potential homosexual sexual encounters.
51 Roderic Anderson, Free Radical: a memoir of a gay political activist, [Caboolture, QLD] : The Author, 2006, pp. 74-75.
52 Gerald Mayhead interview.
53 Ibid.
54 'Mark' and 'James' interview. 'Spangle': a gay 'come-on', knowing glance, or invitation for sex.
55 'Donald' born 1926, interviewed by Barry McKay, October 2000, ALGA.
56 'Mark' and 'James' interview.
57 Francesca Curtis, born 1931, interviewed by Gary Jaynes and Liz Ross, 17 October 2008, ALGA.
58 Noel Tovey, Little Black Bastard, Sydney: Hodder Australia, 2005, p. 129. Tovey was born 1933, 1934, or 1935, 'depending which of my papers you read'.
59 Don Phillips, interviewed by Gary Jaynes, ALGA.
60 'Mark' and 'James' interview. Keith Dunstan describes 6 o'clock closing and the introduction of extended opening hours to 10 o'clock in Wowsers, North Melbourne, Vic.: Cassell, 1968, pp 107-128.
61 'Grant' interview.
62 Black and white photograph depicting the 'Continental Baths. Health Studio for Men, Prop. M Bucchi', IP-74B, Ivan Polson Collection, ALGA.
183
63 Barry McKay, interview.
64 Gerald Mayhead, email to Richard Peterson, 7 July 2010.
65 Barry McKay interview.
66 'Number': person.
67 'Mark' and 'James' interview.
68 'Bill', born 1918, interview.
69 Russell Grant interview. Perhaps this refers to the Woolshed.
70 Gerald Mayhead, 'In which we're served'.
71 Probably named because that section of Little Collins Street between Elizabeth and Swanston had been named the Hub and closed to vehicular traffic for a couple of hours at lunch-time, possibly from about 1970. The Hub Arcade still exists, opposite the rear of Australia on Collins.
72 Gary Jaynes, ALGA, email to Richard Petersen, 15 February 2010, says that a few people have called it that [in oral history interviews held by ALGA], including Barry McKay. This contrasts with Russell Grant's comment earlier.
73 The thematic décor was so well done that I wondered if a Myer window dresser had been involved. I cannot recall ever visiting the Snakepit, or the Club Bar, but once I began visiting the Woolshed in 1970 and over the following three years until I left for overseas, I was picked up by more potential lovers in the Woolshed than anywhere else.
74 Nan Hutton, 'Drink and the Devil', Age, 1 May 1970, p. 8.
75 Around 1972, the self-descriptor term 'camp' was, somewhat reluctantly in Australia, replaced by the American word 'gay', initially for both men and women.
76 Gerald Mayhead interview.
77 'Louis' born 1924, interviewed by Geoffrey Stewardson, 9 July 2001, ALGA.
78 Francesca Curtis interview.
79 Robbie, born 1946, interviewed by Lucy Chesser, 29 March 2007, ALGA.
80 Stephen Peterson, telephone conversation with Richard Peterson, 17 February 2010 and clarifying emails 9 and 14 March 2010.
81 Richard Goodwin, 'Mall: Hotel may sue city council', Age, 9 November 1976, p. 2.
82 Campaign's Melbourne Gay Guide, 1978. For the closing date, Gay Community News, had 8 September 1979 and Robert Ross, 'The End of an Era,' Click!, no. 1, 29 September 1979, pp. 4 and 5, had 29 September (both Saturdays), but it seems that 8 September is correct. The Age on 10 October 1979, p. 3, reported the kiss-in protest the 'night before' and the original arrest as being on 8 September. Click's black and white photograph, IP-05, 25 October 1998 and black and white photograph, Age, 10 October 1979, IP 70-01B, both Ivan Polson Collection, ALGA.
83 Age, 6 October 1979, p. 3.
84 'Ben', born 1916, interviewed by Mark Riley, 4 July 2001, ALGA.
85 Claude Forrell, Age, 25 April 2010.
86 Miles Lewis, Australia Centre, Collins Street, Melbourne, 1987; DV Bick, Significance of Australia Hotel, Melbourne, 1987.
87 http://www.walkingmelbourne.com/building647_hotel-australia.html.

Aspects of Gay and Lesbian Life in Seventies Melbourne

1 Liz Ross, 'We were Catalysts for Change', Journal of Lesbian Studies, vol. 13, no. 4, October 2009, pp. 442-460.
2 On Camp and on the seventies generally, see Denise Thompson, Flaws in the Social Fabric: homosexuals and society in Sydney, St Leonards, NSW: Allen and Unwin, 1985; Garry Wotherspoon, City of the Plain: history of a gay sub-culture, Sydney: Hale and Iremonger, 1991; Graham Willett, Living Out Loud: a history of gay and lesbian activism in Australia, St Leonards, NSW: Allen and Unwin, 2000; Clive Moore, Sunshine and Rainbows: the development of gay and lesbian culture in
184
Queensland, St Lucia, QLD: University of Queensland Press, 2001; and Robert Reynolds, From Camp to Queer: re-making the Australian homosexual, Carlton South, Vic.: Melbourne University Press, 2002.
3 Mark Ellis, 'Brave campaigner for some of society's most marginalised', Age, 25 September 2009. See also, Max Beattie, 'Homosexual speaks out "to help cause"', Age, review section, 22 July 1972, p. 9.
4 Gary Jaynes, personal communication, 21 December 2010. I acknowledge the detailed, generous assistance of Gary with many matters in this article and thank him for it.
5 Wotherspoon, City of the Plain, p. 158.
6 A poster for a demonstration demanding Ken's release earlier in 1975 can be seen at http://vietnamwar.commemoration.gov.au/conscription/moratoriums-and-opposition.php (accessed 30 July 2010). See also, PLWHA (Vic) Legends. Positive and Proud: a Victorian perspective, exhibition catalogue, Melbourne: PLWHA (Vic), 2000, pp. 12-13.
7 'Tovey or not Tovey', Age, 16 January, 2005.
8 Ian MacNeill, 'Brian Finemore', Art Monthly Australia, no. 183 (September 2005).
9 Judith Munro, leaflet, 'Some facts concerning homosexuality', c. 1971 or 1972, acquisitions 2009-0043.tif, Australian Lesbian and Gay Archives, Melbourne.
10 Willett, Living Out Loud, p. 37.
11 Lillian Hellman, Pentimento: a book of portraits, London, Quartet Books, 1980, p. 3.
12 See also the 'Living in the Seventies' issue of Australian Feminist Studies, vol. 22, no. 53, 2007.
13 Jenny Brown, 'Melbourne's Camp Dances', William and John, 7, December 1972, pp. 7-8. Emphasis in the original.
14 Berties (1966-1973?) and Sebastians were Melbourne's two premier live music discoteques. Both were unlicensed. See http://www.milesago.com/venues/berties.htm, (accessed 21 July 2010).
15 Wotherspoon, City of the Plain, pp. 134, 136-7. See also http://www.pridehistorygroup.org.au/ (accessed 23/10/2010).
16 Wotherspoon City of the Plain, p. 72.
17 Craig Johnston, A Sydney Gaze: the making of gay liberation, Sydney: Schiltron Press, 1999, pp. 64-67.
18 Jocelyn Clarke, 'Life as a Lesbian', in Jan Mercer, ed., The Other Half: women in Australian society, Ringwood, Vic.: Penguin, 1975, p. 335.
19 See, Joan Nestle, ed., The Persistent Desire: a femme-butch reader, Boston: Alyson, 1992.
20 See Reynolds, From Camp to Queer, chapters 5 and 6.
21 Johnston, A Sydney Gaze, p. 19.
22 Reynolds, From Camp to Queer, p. 105.
23 http://users.spin.net.au/~deniset/alesfem/qlespol.pdf, accessed 29 July 2010.
24 Quoted in Ross, 'Escaping the Well of Loneliness', in Verity Burgmann and Jenny Lee, eds, Staining the Wattle, Ringwood, Vic.: Penguin, 1988, p. 107.
25 Willett, Living Out Loud, p. 137.
26 Shane Ostenfeld, 'Interactive Movements: Gay Lib, the Women's and Student Movements, and the Trade Unions', in Garry Wotherspoon, ed., Gay and Lesbian Perspectives III, Sydney: University of Sydney, 1996, pp. 189-206.
27 Ross, 'Escaping the well of loneliness', p. 103.
28 See Chris Sitka, 'A Radicalesbian Herstory'. Available at http://users.spin.net.au/~deniset/alesfem/s1sitka.pdf (accessed 30/10/2010) and 'The Melbourne Gay Women's Group', in Jan Mercer, ed, The Other Half.
185
29 Annette Blonski, Barbara Creed, Freda Freiberg, eds, Don't Shoot Darling! Women's independent filmmaking in Australia, Richmond, Vic.: Greenhouse, 1987, p. 63.
30 Kate Jennings, ed., Mother I'm Rooted: an anthology of Australian women poets, Fitzroy, Vic.: Outback Press, 1975.
31 Sandra Zurbo, ed., Stories of Her Life: an anthology of short stories by Australian women, Collingwood, Vic.: Outback Press, 1979.
32 Virginia Fraser and Carol Jerrems, A Book About Australian Women, North Fitzroy, Vic.: Outback Press, 1974.
33 Kerryn Higgs, All That False Instruction, second edition, North Melbourne, Vic.: Spinifex Press, 2001.
34 Willett, Living Out Loud, pp. 122-127.
35 Ross, 'Escaping the Well of Loneliness', p. 103.
36 Johnston, A Sydney Gaze, p. iv.
37 Graham Willett, 'From Camp to Gay. The Homosexual History of the University of Melbourne, 19601976', Working Paper No. 6, History of The University Unit, University Of Melbourne. Available at http://www.huu.unimelb.edu.au/pdf/camp.pdf.
38 Peter C. Langford, 'A Fleeting Impression', Campaign, 2, October, 1975, p. 11.
39 See, 'Guide to a Gayer Melbourne', Campaign, 32, May 1978, pp. 21-25, 36-39.
40 Willett, Living Out Loud, pp. 149-150.
41 See http://melbqueerhistory.tripod.com/lawreform.html (accessed 22 Ocotber 2010).
42 I thank Gary Jaynes for giving me access to the database which is still being developed. The major gay and lesbian histories in note 1 also contain many mentions of bars.
43 Ruth Ford, interview (1995) published in Val Eastwood, The Travelling Mind of Val Eastwood, Parkville, Vic.: Australian Lesbian and Gay Archives, 2009.
44 http://jamieleedrag.tripod.com/id6.html. (accessed 24/07/2010). See also obituary, 'Goodbye Trish: 1922-1999', Focus, no. 35, Spring 1999, p. 22.
45 More detailed research is required. The location and number of venues often changed. Gary Jaynes referred me to 'a map that was printed in City Rhythm for a period of about 18 months (issue #3, Feb 1982 to #17, Aug/Sep 1983). In the map in Feb, '82 it's clear the Commercial Road precinct was well established by then (less so Collingwood)', personal communication, 21 December 2010.
46 David Menadue, Positive, St Leonards, NSW: Allen and Unwin, 2003, pp. 32, 122.
47 Dave's Bear Den, http://members.iinet.net.au/~davem2/bear.html; (accessed 31 December 2010).
48 Dennis Altman, Rehearsals for Change, Sydney: Fontana/Collins, 1980, p. 65,
49 See Michael Hurley, 'Gay and Lesbian Writing and Publishing in Australia, 1961-2001', Australian Literary Studies, vol. 25, no. 1, May 2010, pp. 42-70.
50 'Prince of Wales Hotel', in A Place of Sensuous Resort. Buildings of St Kilda and their People, St Kilda Historical Society, 2005. Available at http://www.skhs.org.au/skhsbuildings/16.htm (accessed 24 July 2010).
51 Peter Davis, 'Men in Frocks', Age, 19 November 2007. Available at http://www.theage.com.au/news/in-depth/men-in-frocks/2007/11/19/1195321692520.html (accessed 26 July 2010).
52 'Prince of Wales Hotel'. The chapter provides no information on how these numbers were derived, though they possibly relate to takings based on a per head cover charge over the specified time period.
53 See Menadue, Positive, pp. 148-158.
54 Ross, 'Escaping the well of loneliness', p. 106.
55 Menadue, Positive, p. 150.
56 Willett, Living Out Loud, p. 210.
186

Young Gays: towards a history of youth, queer sexualities and education in Australia

1 See Graham Willett, Living Out Loud: a history of Gay and Lesbian activism in Australia, St Leonards, NSW: Allen and Unwin, 2000. See also Liz Ross, 'We were Catalysts for Change . . .', Journal of Lesbian Studies, vol. 13, no. 4, October 2009, pp. 442-60.
2 Ibid, p. 95.
3 See Jeremy Fisher, 'Into the light', Overland, 2008, http://web.overland.org.au/previous-issues/issue-191/feature-jeremy-fisher/ (accessed 19 November 2010).
4 See Graham Willett, '"Proud and Employed": the Gay and Lesbian Movement and the Victorian Teachers' Unions in the 1970s', Labour History, no. 76, May 1999, pp. 78-94. See pp. 80-81 for the discussion of Short.
5 For example, see Gary Jaynes, 'Young, Gay and Proud: twenty years on', in Michael Crowhurst and Mic Emslie, eds, Young People and Sexualities: experiences, perspectives and service provision, Melbourne: Youth Research Centre, University of Melbourne, 2000; Daniel Marshall, 'Young, Gay and Proud in Retrospect: sexual politics, community activism and pedagogical intervention', Traffic, no. 6, 2005, pp. 161-187; and Steven Angelides, '"The Continuing Homosexual Offensive": sex education, Gay rights, and homosexual recruitment', in Shirleene Robinson, ed., Homophobia: an Australian history, Annandale, NSW: Federation Press, 2008.
6 It would necessarily be a history of queer sexualities, and not gay and lesbian, because the range of activities, interventions and individuals involved in the anti-homophobic and anti-heterosexist work at the centre of such a history are not exhaustively and properly addressed by terms like 'gay', 'lesbian' or any other identitarian label. One example of this is the fact that some young people involved in queer youth groups eschew labels or identify as queer heterosexual 'allies'. This terminological volatility and definitional instability is an integral component to telling the history.
7 Young, Gay and Proud, Melbourne: Gay Teachers' and Students' Group, 1978.
8 Bill Calder, Lavender Youth: a history of Melbourne Young Gays Sep 79 – Jan 81, [Melbourne]: The Author, 1985. Hereafter LY . This article focuses on Calder's account. The copy I used for this research is held in the ALGA Ephemera Collection.
9 The workshop was listed in the conference program as running from 2 – 3pm Saturday September 1st, in Room 19. See Newsletter of the 5th National Homosexual Conference, no. 6, p. 14.
10 LY, p. 5.
11 Ibid, p. 3.
12 Ibid.
13 Timothy Conigrave, Holding the Man, Ringwood, Vic.: Penguin Books, 1996. See pp. 133-134 for Conigrave's account of the Young Gays' motion. I am grateful to Gary Jaynes for bringing this reference to my attendtion.
14 LY, p. 5.
15 Ibid.
16 Graham and Grant, Young Gays, 'Young Gays' [The Network], Gay Community News, vol. 1, no. 2, December 1979-January 1980, pp. 31-32.
17 Young Gays, 'Dear Gay Community News', letter, Gay Community News, vol. 1, no. 2, December 1979-January 1980, p. 30.
18 LY, p. 15.
19 Ibid, p. 16.
20 'Young Gays', Gay Community News, vol. 1, no. 1, November 1979, p. 11.
21 The exact date is unclear, but based on other specified dates it seems that it occurred in November 1979 and early 1980; Calder refers to a trip that occurred during the 'summer of 77-80' but I assume this is meant to be 1979-1980.
22 Conigrave, Holding the Man, pp. 135-136.
23 LY, p. 6.
187
24 Ibid, pp. 6-7.
25 'On the Move with Young Gays', Gay Community News, vol. 2, no. 10, December 1980, p. 16.
26 See Alison Thorne, 'Young Gays', Gay Community News, vol. 2, no. 2, March 1980, p. 21.
27 Willett, Living Out Loud, pp. 138-142.
28 LY, p. 8. See also Alison Thorne, 'Young Gays', Gay Community News, vol. 2, no. 1, February 1980, p. 27.
29 LY, pp. 10-11.
30 Ibid, pp. 8, 12.
31 Alison Thorne, 'Young Gays' Corner', Gay Community News, vol. 2, no. 5, June 1980, p. 5.
32 'Young Gays Face the Ball', Gay Community News, vol. 2, no. 2, March 1980, p. 6.
33 Alison Thorne, 'Young Gays', Gay Community News, vol. 2, no. 2, March 1980, p. 21.
34 LY, p. 14.
35 'Young Gays Film Collective', Gay Community News, vol. 2, no. 2, March 1980, p. 21.
36 Michael Toucak, 'Young Gays' Corner: Film Collective', Gay Community News, vol. 2, no. 5, June 1980, p. 5. See also 'Young Gays', Gay Community News, vol. 2, no. 7, August 1980, p. 29.
37 For further information about Y-GLAM see Merri Community Health Services, Youth Health Team, 2009, 'Y-GLAM Performing Arts Project', http://www.merrichs.org.au/Pages/YGLAM.aspx (accessed 19 November 2010).
38 LY, pp. 14, 27; 'Geelong Young Gays', Gay Community News, vol. 2, no. 1, February 1980, p. 8. A month later, however, the group was encouraging young gays in Geelong to join the Geelong Male Homosexual and Lesbian support group instead of trying to establish a separate group (see Alison Thorne, 'Young Gays', Gay Community News, vol. 2, no. 2, March 1980, p. 21).
39 See WayOut History, WayOut Rural Victorian Youth and Sexual Diversity Project, 'WayOut History', http://www.wayout.org.au/WayOut/wayout-history.html (accessed 19 November 2010).
40 LY, p. 16.
41 Alison Thorne, 'Young Gays', Gay Community News, vol. 2, no. 2, March 1980, p. 21.
42 LY, p. 15.
43 Ibid, p. 23.
44 Ibid, p. 16. And for an image of the Young Gays banner at an anti-uranium march see, 'And Now We Are One', Gay Community News, vol. 2, no. 9, November 1980, p. 13.
45 For this episode, see Gary Jaynes and Warren Talbot, 'Anger at Ashley's: Sexist Outburst Brings Sharp Response', Gay Community News, vol. 2, no. 5, June 1980, pp. 4-5.
46 LY, p. 17.
47 Ibid.
48 Ibid, p. 18.
49 Ibid, p. 19. Capitalization as in the original.
50 Ibid.
51 Ibid.
52 Ibid, p. 20.
53 Ibid.
54 Ibid, p. 22.
55 Ibid.
56 Ibid, pp. 23, 26.
57 Ibid, p. 24. See also 'Young Gays Birthday', Gay Community News, vol. 2, no. 7, August 1980, p. 13; also see 'And Now We Are One', Gay Community News, vol. 2, no. 9, November 1980, p. 13.
58 Paul Miller, 'Young Gays Dissolves', Gay Community News, vol. 3, no. 1, February 1981, p. 19.
59 Ibid.
188
60 Ibid.
61 'Young Gays', Gay Community News, vol. 1, no. 1, November 1979, p. 11.
62 LY, p. 26.
63 Ibid.
64 Ibid.
65 Ibid, p. 20.
66 Ibid, p. 26.
67 Ibid, p. 27.
68 Ibid, p. 1.
69 For example, see http://www.wayout.org.au/WayOut/wayout-history.html.
70 For example, see Daniel Marshall, 'Working with Same Sex Attracted and Transgender Young People: a consultation with workers across Victoria', Melbourne: Social Policy Branch, Department of Human Services, 2005.
71 For example, see Youth Participation and Access, Department of Planning and Community Development, 2010, 'Youth Participation and Access', http://www.dpcd.vic.gov.au/youth/youthparticipation-and-access (accessed 19 November 2010).

Rennie Ellis at Gay Pride Week, September 1973

1 'Gay Pride Week', Melbourne Gay Liberation Newsletter.
2 Ibid.
3 Two of these survived into the 1990s before disappearing. One was opposite St Patrick's Catholic Cathedral; another was on the side of a house in Fitzroy. Both read: Gay Pride Week September 7-14.
4 'Melbourne Gay Pride Week Reviewed', Melbourne Gay Liberation Newsletter, October 1973. A leaflet was produced for this evening in the form of a letter addressed 'Dear Mum/Dad – Melbourne Gay Liberation Front', 'Parents Night 11th September', leaflet, n.d. [September 1973].
5 Rennie Ellis, 'A Gay Picnic in the Park', Nation Review, 14-20 September 1973, p. 1516.
6 'MGLF' [sic], Gay Rays, December 1972.
7 'Come on Victoria, your time is up', Stallion, vol. 1, no. 5-9, September 1973, p. 2.

Miss Newcomb's Teapot

1 Alexander Thomson (1800-1866). Medical practioner and pastoralist. See http://adbonline.anu.edu.au/biogs/A020478b.htm.
2 Both their remains were later moved to the East Cemetery in Geelong.
3 http://adbonline.anu.edu.au/biogs/A010314b.htm
4 John Dunmore Lang, Phillipsland: visit to Geelong and the Western District of Victoria in 1846, with an introduction and notes by Ian McLaren, Parkville, Vic: University of Melbourne Library, 1987.
5 From the first installment (Jan. 1875) of an anonymous (but clearly by James Dodgson) three-part-obituary ('Mrs Dodgson') of Caroline Newcomb/Dodgson published in the Wesleyan Chronicle, Melbourne, 20 Jan., 20 March, and 20 April 1875. (I am greatly indebted to Alison Head for this reference.)
6 Leila J Rupp, '"Imagine my Surprise": women's relationships in historical perspective', Frontiers: a Journal of Women Studies, Autumn 1980, pp. 61-70.
7 Carroll Smith-Rosenberg, 'The Female World of Love and Ritual: relations between women in nineteenth-century America', Signs, 1, 1975, pp. 1-29.
8 Kate Davison, Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Material Survey Report, Melbourne: Museum Victoria, 2006. The survey is discussed in Kate Davison's article in this issue.
9 Wesleyan Chronicle, Jan. 1875.
10 Bridget Hill, Women Alone: spinsters in England 1660-1850, New Haven: Yale University Press, 2001.
189
11 George Russell to John Drysdale, 1854: typescript, P. L. Brown Papers, Geelong Heritage Centre.
12 John Dunmore Lang, (1799-1878). Categorized in his entry n the Australian Dictionary of Biography as 'Presbyterian clergyman, politician, educationist, immigration organizer, historian, anthropologist, journalist, gaol-bird'. See http://adbonline.anu.edu.au/biogs/A020069b.htm.
13 Lang, Phillipsland, p. 6.
14 Mrs Jane Williams (Edinburgh), 1841, quoted in P. L. Brown, Clyde Company Papers, London, Oxford University Press, 1941-71, vol. 2, p. 228.
15 Wesleyan Chronicle, March 1875.
16 Wesleyan Chronicle, Jan 1875.
17 Ibid.
18 Janet Richardson, guest at Boronggoop 1848, quoted in Brown, Clyde Company Papers, vol, 5, p. 617.
19. Elizabeth Sophia Fletcher, The Methodist Class-Meeting: an essay on Christian fellowship, London: Elliot Stock, 1878.
20 Wesleyan Chronicle, Jan. 1875.
21 Ibid.
22 Wesleyan Chronicle, March 1875.
23 Wesleyan Chronicle, Jan. 1875.
24 Lang, Phillipsland, p. 6.
25 Wesleyan Chronicle, March 1875.
26 Letter to Mrs Drysdale, quoted in Anne Hoban, 'Anne Drysdale: a sense of place', BA Hons thesis, La Trobe University, 1987.
27 Ruth Perry (1986), quoted in Hill, Women Alone, p. 167.
28 Elizabeth Mavor, The Ladies of Llangollen, Harmondsworth, Penguin Books, 1973.
29 Craik, A Woman's Thoughts About Women (1858) quoted in Martha Vicinus, Independent Women: work and community for single women, 1850-1920, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1985.
30 Wesleyan Chronicle, March 1875.
31 Wesleyan Chronicle, April 1875.
32 Vicinus, Independent Women, p. 36.
33 Eunice McLeod, 'Life on the Bellarine Peninsula', typescript, 1962. Geelong Heritage Centre.
34 Geelong Advertiser, 8 Oct. 1874.
35 Smith-Rosenberg, 'The female world', p. 29.

Questions Arise: homosexual eroticism in a nineteenth century family photographic album

1 Quoted in Pat Booth, ed, Master Photographers: the world's great photographers on their art and technique, New York: C. N. Potter, 1983, p. 135.
2 Susan Sontag, On Photography, New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1977, p. 199.
3 'The Smith Family Album', c1885- c1900. Forty-eight photographs, 2 newspaper illustrations in album 32.3 × 26.2cm, LTAF 191.
4 Michael Anton Budd, 'Every Man a Hero: sculpting the homoerotic in physical culture photography', in Deborah Bright, ed., The Passionate Camera, New York: Routledge, 1998, p. 53.
5 'Notes for the Photo. Tourist or Cyclist', in James Aebi, ed., The Australian Photographic Annual and Year Book of Photographic Societies of Australasia, 1898 also Australasian Process Workers' Companion and Photo-Tourists & Cyclists' Guide, Sydney: Harrington & Co., Ltd, 1898, p.140.
6 Gail Newton, Shades of Light: photography and Australia 1839-1988, Canberra: Australia National Gallery/Collins Australia, 1988, pp. 68-69.
7 Jack Cato, The Story of the Camera in Australia, Melbourne: Georgian House, 1955, p. 147.
190
8 Ibid, p. 148.
9 Andrew L. Walker, 'Photo Albums: images of time and reflections of self', Journal of Qualitative Sociology, vol. 12, no. 2, June 1989, p. 155.
10 Peter Hamilton, The Beautiful and the Damned: the creation of identity in nineteenth-century photography at the National Portrait Gallery 6 June-7 October 2001, Hampshire: Lund Humphries, 2001, p. 147.
11 Charles Williams, Meaning of Family Photographs, http://homepage.mac.com/williamzone/dostal/research/meaning.html, (accessed 17 June 2010).
12 Glenn Willumson, 'Making Meaning: displaced materiality in the library and art museum', in Elizabeth Edwards and Janice Hart, eds, Photographs Objects Histories: on the materiality of images, London: Routledge, 2004, p. 63.
13 Angelo S. Rapport, Famous Artists and Their Models, London: Stanley Paul, 1913, p. 18.
14 Kenneth Clark, The Nude: a study in ideal form, Garden City, New York: Doubleday Anchor Books, 1956, p. 23.
15 Naomi Rosenblum, World History of Photography, http://www.all-art.org/history658_photography7.html (accessed 9 November 2010).
16 Budd, 'Every man a hero', p. 51.
17 John Potvin, Material and Visual Cultures Beyond Male Bonding, 1870-1914: bodies, boundaries and intimacy, Burlington, VT: Ashgate Publishing Company, 2008, p. 18.
18 'Evening' in the Smithsonian Institute: the 1896 Washington Salon and Art Photographic Exhibition, http://americanhistory.si.edu/1896/p01.htm (accessed 3 May 2010).
19 Potvin, Material and Visual Cultures Beyond Male Bonding, p. 2.
20 Prints, Drawings and Paintings Department. Victoria and Albert Museum, Dressing the Male: men in fashion plates, London: Victoria and Albert Museum, 1999.
21 R. A. Fotheringham, 'Exiled to the Colonies: "Oscar Wilde" in Australia 1895-1897', Nineteenth Century Theatre & Film, vol. 30, no. 2, July 2003, p. 64.
22 lbid, p. 61.
23 Alan Davies and Peter Stanbury, The Mechanical Eye in Australia: photography 1841-1900, South Melbourne, Vic.: Oxford University Press, 1985, p. 241.
24 Australasian, 21 January 1899, p. 141.
25 Australasian, 9 June 1900, p. 1262.
26 Potvin, Material and Visual Cultures Beyond Male Bonding, p. 2.
27 Susan Sontag, On Photography, Harmondsworth, Middlesex: Penguin Books, 1979, p. 6
28 Jed Pearl, 'The Restless Medium', The New Republic, http://www.tnr.com/article/books-and-arts/the-restless-medium (accessed 27 April 2010).

Love's Coming of Age: Australian socialist and communist parties and sexuality

1 This material in this chapter is part of an ongoing project about the Australian Left and the Gay Liberation movement.
'Vigilant', 'Love's Coming of Age', Westralian Worker, 2 March, 1917, p. 2 http://john.curtin.edu.au/fitzgerald/collection/pen4.html (accessed 15 August 2010).
2 The quote is from Engels' Origin of the Family where he discusses what relations between people will be like under a future socialist society.
3 Ross's Monthly, vol. 2, no. 21, August 1917, p. 15. The monthly publication had close relations with the Victorian Socialist Party (VSP) and often ran articles by its members, while the VSP's the Socialist regularly advertised Ross's and its articles.
4 Gregory Carleton, Sexual Revolution in Bolshevik Russia, Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2005, p. 2; quote from Khanin, Carleton, Sexual Revolution in Bolshevik Russia, p. 4.
191
5 Lambrick wrote a two-part article on the times, Socialist, 17 January 1919, p. 3 and 24 January 1919, p. 2; the quote is from 24 January.
6 The party used the initials ACP for much of its early days, but I have used the more familiar CPA. The CPA dissolved itself in 1991, but two parties – the Communist Party and the Communist Party of Australia (Marxist-Leninist) – currently claim descent from the original CPA. The CPA(ML) looks to China as its socialist model.
7 Stuart Macintyre, The Reds, St Leonards, NSW: Allen & Unwin, 1998, p. 104.
8 The Sydney-based Australian Socialist Party (ASP) played a bigger role in forming the CPA, but it had earlier dissolved itself into the CPA.
9 This is a controversial position on Russia which this article cannot address. I refer readers to Tony Cliff in State Capitalism in Russia, London: Pluto, 1974. Writings on this are available at the Marxist Internet Archive http://www.marxists.org, http://www.swp.org.uk, http://www.socialistworker.org or http://www.sa.org.au.
10 As quoted in Lindsay German, Material Girls: women, men and work, London: Bookmarks, 2007, p. 180 (emphasis added).
11 Eric J. Hobsbawm, Revolutionaries: contemporary essays, London: Quartet, 1982, pp. 216-19.
12 Graham Willett, 'Party Like It's 1958', MCV, no. 22, 6 August 2008, p. 53; Canberra Times, 25 August 1952, p. 4. The Law Conference argued that adult homosexuality should not be a crime.
13 Adelaide Advertiser, 5 September 1908, p. 5. Initially it was thought that homosexuality was rarely covered by the mainstream press, but more recent research continues to discover a richer history.
14 Socialist, 15 December 1906, p. 3; 22 December 1906, p. 5. Several verses of Oscar Wilde's 'The Ballad of Reading Gaol' were reprinted in the Socialist, 2 February 1907, p. 4.
15 Socialist, 20 October 1906, p. 4. Edwards was, in fact, Australian born and had dressed as a man so successfully that she married several times. See Lucy Chesser, Parting with my Sex: cross-dressing, inversion and sexuality in Australian cultural life, Sydney: Sydney University Press, 2008.
16 Pankhurst in the Communist, 24 December 1920, p. 1; Morgan in the Communist, 5 August 1921, p. 6.
17 Meredith Anne Foley, 'The Women's Movement in NSW and Victoria, 1918-1938', PhD thesis, University of Sydney, 1985, pp. 48, 49, 57-58, 62. Available at http://www.ses.library.usyd.edu.au (accessed 15 August 2010).
18 This was more of a blow than it may seem at first as many Australian books were actually published in the UK.
19 See Liz Ross, 'Flappers, Faculty and Fast Ladies', in Graham Willett, Wayne Murdoch and Daniel Marshall, eds, Secret Histories of Queer Melbourne, Parkville, Vic.: Australian Lesbian and Gay Archives, 2011; Georgine Clarsen, Eat My Dust, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2008, pp. 104-119.
20 Tribune, 31 March 1953, p. 9.
21 There was an earlier article about child abuse: Workers Weekly, 29 June 1937, p. 3. The article accuses the Nazis of 'trumpeting the news of sexual aberrations . . . by Catholic priests' while saying nothing about Nazis imprisoned for 'acts of immorality with young children'.
22 RM, 'Sniggers for Sister George', Tribune, 3 August 1966.
23 http://www.austlit.edu.au/specialistDatasets/Banned/; Nicole Moore Secrets of the Censors: obscenity in the Archives, http://www.naa.gov.au/about-us/research-grants/margaret-george-award/former/moore-paper-2004-old.aspx (accessed 15 August 2010).
24 I cannot do justice here to the great contribution by CPA writers, especially the women, to literature and theatre and the breaking with the restrictive stereotypes in the period from 1930s through to the 1960s. See Carole Ferrier, Jean Devanny: romantic revolutionary, Carlton, Vic.: Melbourne University Press, 1999, and Michelle Arrow, Upstaged: women dramatists in the limelight at last, Strawberry Hills, NSW: Currency Press, 2002, for their excellent coverage. I will be dealing with this period in much more detail in a forthcoming book.
192
25 Tribune, 22 February 1951, p. 6.
26 Graham Willett, Living Out Loud: a history of Gay and Lesbian activism in Australia. St. Leonards, NSW: Allen & Unwin, 2000, p. 23. It was also reported in the Australian.
27 Phil Carswell, Australian Lesbian and Gay Archive, Tape no. 251 (Brisbane, 11 July 1996). Phil notes that he would not use the term 'mad sheilas' today and has nothing but praise for his CPA sisters and comrades.
28 Tribune, 26 May 1971, p. 6.

The Naked Saint: Sir J. Edgar Boehm's St George and the Dragon

1 'The Derbyshire Mumming Play of St. George and the Dragon: or, as it is sometimes called the Pace Egg', as collected by Gwen Jones and published in Folklore, vol. 2, no. 3, September 1921, pp. 181-193.
2 Robert Rhodes James, ed., Winston S. Churchill: his complete speeches, 1897-1963, New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1974, vol. 5, pp. 5267 – 5268. I am indebted to the Hon. Jim Carlton for drawing my attention to the speech.
3 Giles Morgan, St George Harpenden, Hertfordshire: Pocket Essentials, 2006, pp. 20-21. St George in Catholic Online http://www.catholic.org, consulted 13 January 2010.
4 Giles Morgan, St George, p. 34. Michael Collins, 'St George' at http://www.britannia.com/history/stgeorge.html, consulted 13 January 2010. David Woods, 'Arculph's Luggage: the sources for Adomnán's De Locis Sanctis' Ériu, vol. 52, 2002, pp. 25-52., Samantha Riches, St George, Hero, Martyr and Myth, Phoenix Mill, Stroud: Sutton Publishing, 2005, pp. 11, 18-21.
5 The Hague, KB, 76 F 5 Picture Bible (prefatory cycle preceding a Psalter?). Added texts: Prayers, in Latin. Enseignement, in French (ff. 21-33). Huon de Saint-Quentin, Complainte de Jérusalem contre la Cour de Rome (ff. 45v, 1v) St. Omer, Abbey of St. Bertin, Benedictines; c. 1190-1200 c. 1290-1300. William Dalrymple, From the Holy Mountain, London: Harper Perennial, 2005, pp. 45-47; 338-344. The current shrine to St George in modern day Lod has a mosque next door in honour of Al Khidr and readers can visit these through the magic of YouTube See http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fMSCylGPhQQ.
6 Jacobus de Voragi, The Golden Legend: readings on the Saints, translated by William Granger Ryan, Princeton: Princeton University Press 1993, pp. 238 - 242. Giles Morgan, St George, pp. 33-4; Michael Collins 'St George'. Thomas R. Liszka, 'The Dragon in the "South English Legendary": Judas, Pilate and the "A 1" Reaction', Modern Philology, vol. 100, no. 1 August 2002, pp. 50-59. E. Gordon Whatley, Anne B. Thompson, Robert K. Upchurch, 'St George and the Dragon in the South English Legendary (East Midland Revision c. 1400)', consulted at http://www.lib.rochester.edu/camelot/teams/whgeointro.htm on 6 April 2010.
7 Kinga Ilona Márkus-Takeshita, 'From Iranian Myth to Folk Narrative: the legend of the Dragon Slayer and the Spinning Maiden in the Persian Book of Kings', Asian Folklore Studies, vol. 60, 2001, pp. 203-14. Nigel Morgan, 'The Apocalypse', Cambridge Trinity College MS B.10.12. Item 10 in Bronwyn Stocks and Nigel Morgan, eds, The Medieval Imagination: Illuminated Manuscripts from Cambridge, Australia and New Zealand, Melbourne: Macmillan Art Publishing and State Library of Victoria, 2008, pp. 42-43.
8 James Bugslag, 'St Eustace and St George: crusading saints in the sculpture and stained glass of Chartres Cathedral', Zeitschrift für Kunstgeschichte, 66 bd, h. 4, 2003, pp. 441-464.
E. S. G Robinson, 'Two English Gold Coins', British Museum Quarterly, vol. 16, no. 2, April 1951, pp. 41-42. Giles Morgan, St George, p. 103. James Shapiro, 1599: a year in thelLife of William Shakespeare, London: Faber and Faber 2006, see pp. 98-103.
9 Lord Byron, English Bards and Scotch Reviewers: a satire (1809). See Lord Byron, The Complete Poetical Works edited by Jerome J. McGann, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1980-1993, vol. 1, pp. 227-264 (261).
10 David Womersley, 'Edward Gibbon 17371794', Oxford Dictionary of National Biography online edition, consulted on 6 May 2010. Edward Gibbon, The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman
193
Empire, London: Methuen 1896 (with notes etc. by J. B. Bury), pp. 470-472. Samantha Riches, St George, pp. 6-7.
11 Boyd Hilton, A Mad, Bad and Dangerous People?: England 17831846, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2008, p. 1. Christopher Casey, '"Grecian Granduers and the Rude Wasting of Old Time": Britain, the Elgin Marbles, and post-revolutionary Hellenism' in Foundations, vol. IV, no. 1, Fall 2009, at http://web1.johnshopkins.edu/foundations/?p=8, consulted 27 April 2010.
12 William St Clair, 'Thomas Bruce (17661841)', Oxford Dictionary of National Biography online edition, consulted 6 May 2010.
13 Graham Pollard, 'Pistrucci, Benedetto (17831855) Oxford Dictionary of National Biography online edition, consulted 8 January 2010. 'Gold Sovereigns' at http://www.cruzis-coins.com/sovs/sov2html, consulted 28 April 2010. C. Stumpf-Condry and S. K. Skedd, 'Richard Payne Knight (17511824), Oxford Dictionary of National Biography online edition, consulted on 6 May 2010.
14 'Report from the Select Committee on the Earl of Elgin's Collection of Sculptured Marbles; &c.', Ordered by the House of Commons to be printed on 25 March 1816. Quote on the attitude of the Greek population, p. 5; conclusion, p. 15. Holger Hoock, The King's Artists: the Royal Academy of Arts and the politics of British Culture 17601840, Oxford: Clarendon Press 2009, pp. 285-290.
15 H. N. Humphreys, The Coinage of the British Empire, London: Richard Griffin 1861, p. 163. Henry William Henfrey, A Guide to the Study of English Coins, London: George Bell 1891, pp. 106-107.
16 N. Carlisle, A Memoir of the Life and Works of William Wyon Esq. ARA Chief Engraver to the Royal Mint, London: W. Nicholl, 1837. This partisan work was published privately as part of the bitter feud between the supporters of Wyon and the supporters of Pistrucci. Gentlemen's Magazine, vol. 8, 1837, pp. 389-391. See also vol. 9, 1838, pp. 71-73. Laurence Brown, British Historical Medals, London: Seaby, 1980, vol. 2, item 2204, p. 106.
17 A set of the Rosetti designed windows is held by the Victoria and Albert Museum see: http:// collections.vam.ac.uk/item/O8439/panel/. The painting by Burne-Jones, 'The Fight: St George Killing the Dragon VI 1866' is now owned by the Art Gallery of New South Wales, a gift of Arthur C. Moon in memory of his mother in 1950. Preliminary drawings are held by the British Museum and the Birmingham Museums and Art Gallery. See also John Franklin Martin, 'Two Scenes from Burne-Jones's St George Series rediscovered', Burlington Magazine, vol. 139, no. 1130, May 1997, pp. 330-334.
18 The Pistrucci design for the reverse was adopted by Order in Council on 14 January 1871. See H. A. Grueber, Handbook, p. 157. Athena S. Leoussi, 'Myths of Ancestry' in Nations and Nationalism, vol. 7, no. 4 (2001), pp. 467-486, pp. 476-7.
19 From The Real and Ideal, the Beautiful and the True; or art in the nineteenth century with illustrations from the Royal Academy Exhibition of 1876 by a rustic John Ruskin.
20 Holger Hoock, The King's Artists, pp. 300-7; Times, 1 May 1876, p. 12; York Herald, 1 May 1876, p. 6; Times, 10 May 1876, p. 9.
21 Mark Stocker, 'Boehm, Sir (Joesph) Edgar (18341890)' Oxford Dictionary of National Biography online edition, consulted on 11 January 2010. Wilfred Meynell, 'Our Living Artists: Joseph Edgar Boehm ARA', in Magazine of Art Illustrated, London: Cassell, Peter and Galopin and Co.,1880, pp. 333- 338. Mark Stocker, Royalist and Realist: the life and work of Sir Joseph Edgar Boehm, New York: Garland Publishing Inc. 1988, pp. 281-292. The Horse Sculpture is 'Rearing Thoroughbred' (1875). It was commissioned by the Duke of Westminster for the new stableyard at his country seat Eaton Hall in Cheshire.
22 Philadelpia Inquirer, 11 November, 1876, p. 4. George Augustus Sala, Elkington and Co. International Exhibition of 1876, Philadelphia, London: Sutton Sharpe and Co, 1876. James D. McCabe, The Illustrated History of the Centennial Exhibition held in Commemoration of the One Hundredth Anniversary of American Independence: to Which is added a Complete Description of the City of Philadelphia, Cincinatti: Jones 1876, pp. 363 – 364. Descriptive List for Elkington and Company, Metalwork Manufacturers and Electroplaters, Records, AAD 3-1979, Victoria and Albert Museum.
194
23 Theodore C. Knauff, A History of the Society of the Sons of St George, Philadelphia: Society of the Sons of St George, 1923, pp. 17, 55-7. Philadelpia Inquirer, 12 May 1876, p. 2; 4 January 1877, p. 3. Redmond Barry collected extensively for the Library at the exhibition and the range of pamphlets, newspapers and publications is large. He subscribed to the Philadephia Inquirer for a time and the issues are in the collection with an account of his visit to the Cherry Hill Pententiary in the issue for 30 May 1876, p. 2, and an account of the Victoria Court on October 3 1876, p. 2. A search of the surviving records of Elkington and Company held at the National Art Library in the Victoria and Albert Museum (AAD 3-1979) failed to identify any further details on this commission. Few artists are clearly identified with Elkington commissions.
24 Christopher Newall, 'Leighton, Frederic, Baron Leighton (18301896), Oxford Dictionary of National Biography online edition, consulted on 19 July 2010. Christies Sale 5964, 'Victorian Pictures', 8 November 1996, lot 52, re sale of plaster cast made by Leighton of a lost maquette of the final work. Jason Edwards, Alfred Gilbert's Aestheticism: Gilbert amongst Whistler, Wilde, Leighton, Pater and Burne-Jones, Aldershot, Hampshire: Ashgate 2006. Gilbert worked in Boehm's atelier on the St George, and Boehm's friendship with Leighton included working on commissions for his house.
25 William Meynell, 'Our Living Artists . . .', illustration of St George and the Dragon, p. 337. J. E. Boehm R. A., 'Portraiture in Sculpture' in Architect, vol. 27, 18 March 1882, pp. 159-161; 25 March 1882, pp. 183 - 185; 1 April 1882, pp. 204 - 206; 8 April 1882, pp. 216-218.
26 Times, 8 June 1885, p. 4. Mark Stocker, Royalist and Realist, pp. 290, 299-302.
27 Report of the Royal Commission for the Melbourne Centennial International Exhibition of 1888 to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty, 1889, pp. 11-12; 'List of works', pp. 107-124. Argus, 11 September 1888, p. 34. Illustrated Australian News, 15 September 1888. 'Trustees Minutes', 22 August 1888, item 3.
28 Mark Stocker, Royalist and Realist, pp. 105-108 (Sydney sculpture); pp. 149-167 (Wellington Memorial); pp. 243 -279 (Jubilee coinage); and article in the Dictionary of National Biography.
29 A History of the Society of the Sons of St George, pp. 56-77. Philadelphia Public Art at http://www. philart.net/person.php?id=38, consulted 15 March 2010. http://Phillyskyline.com at http://phillyskyline.com/stgeorgeshall.htm, consulted 1 April 2010. E. La Touche Armstrong, The Book of the Public Library, Museums, and National Gallery of Victoria, 1856-1906, Melbourne: Trustees of the Public Library, Musuems and National Gallery of Victoria, 1906, p. 65. Minutes of the Trustees of the Public Library, Museums and National Gallery of Victoria, 9 July 1891. Ernest S. Smellie, 'The Art Movement. An Australian Artist: Mr C. D. Richardson', Magazine of Art, pp. 467 – 470, maquette on p. 468.
30 Noel S. Hutchison, 'Mackennal, Sir Edgar Bertram (1863 - 1931)', Australian Dictionary of Biography, vol. 10, Melbourne University Press, 1986, pp 301-302. Also available on-line at adbonline.anu.edu. au/biogs/A100295b.htm. D. Minnochi, 'Strategies of a Sculptor: the shifting allegories of Betram Mackennal's civic sculpture' in D. Edwards, ed., Mackennal, Art Gallery of NSW: The Fifth Balnaves Sculpture Project, 2007, pp. 121 -142, pp. 126-7.
Illustrated Australian News, 1 August 1891. Argus, 11 July 1891 p. 10; 17 September 1891 p. 7.
31 Two plaster Busts by Boehm were removed from the collection in 1943. One, a bust of Sir Henry Cole was sold, the other a bust of John Ruskin was donated to the Geelong Art Gallery, where it remains. See 'Minute to the Governor in Council 15 February 1943', copy held in Pictures Collection. John Poynter, Mr Felton's Bequests Parkville, Vic.: Miegunyah Press, 2003, p. 266. Ted Gott, 'An Iron Maiden for Melbourne – the History and Context of Emmanuel Frémiet's 1906 cast of Jeanne D'Arc' in La Trobe Journal, no. 81, Autumn 2008, pp. 53-68, p. 62.
195

Barrett Reid: a charismatic chameleon

1 Shelton Lea and Robert Harris, A Flash of Life, Mountain View, Vic.: Christine Webb, 1986.
2 Philip Jones, Art & Life, Crows Nest, NSW: Allen & Unwin, 2004, p. 4.
3 Vida Horn, 'Barjai Days', Overland, no. 142, 1996, p. 36.
4 Shelton Lea, The Paradise Poems, Greensborough, Vic.: Seahorse Publications, 1973. Acknowledgements page.
5 Richard Haese, interview with Barrett Reid, 2 September 1985. PA 95/161, Box 74, wallet 2, Barrett Reid Papers, MS 13339, State Library of Victoria (hereafter SLV).
6 Jones, Art & Life, p. 67.
7 Graham Willett, 'Moods of Love and Commitment: Laurence Collinson in Melbourne', La Trobe Journal, no. 83, May 2009, pp. 77-90; Richard Haese, 'The Revolutionary years', La Trobe Journal, no. 30, December 1982, pp. 25-28; Joanne Watson, 'Brisbane's Little Chelsea: the cultural legacy of the Barjai and Miya groups', Overland, no. 174, 2004, pp. 58-62.
8 Barbara Blackman, Glass After Glass: autobiographical reflections, Ringwood, Vic.: Penguin, 1997, p. 119.
9 Stephen Murray-Smith, 'Speech given at Barrett Reid's 60th Birthday', PA 95/161, Box 72, Barrett Reid Papers, MS 13339, SLV.
10 'The Face: Helen Elliott meets Philip Jones', Australian, 17 April 2004, p. 10.
11 Clive Moore, Sunshine and Rainbows: the development of gay and lesbian culture in Queensland, St. Lucia, Qld. : University of Queensland Press, 2001, pp. 120-123.
12 Blackman, Glass After Glass, p. 109.
13 Lesley Harding and Kendrah Morgan, Sunday's Kitchen, Carlton, Vic.: The Miegunyah Press, 2010, p. 181.
14 Helen Topliss, interview with Barrett Reid, writer and editor, 17 April, 1995, Heide.
15 Edgar Waters, interview with Barrett Reid, writer, editor and librarian, 30 October 1986, Heide.
16 Ibid.
17 Stephen Williams, ' To like the poems most needed', Overland, no. 142, 1996, pp. 39-40.
18 Michael Sharkey, 'Barrett Reid: poet', Australian Book Review, no. 176, November 1995, pp. 56-57.
19 Barrett Reid, Making Country, Sydney: Angus and Robertson, 1995, p. 65.
20 Ibid, p. 68.
21 Ibid, pp. 19-21.
22 Ibid, pp. 10-11.
23 Jones, Art & Life, pp. 73, 80.
24 Charles Osborne, Giving it Away, London: Secker & Warburg, 1986.
25 Ramona Koval, 'A last Overland Journey,' Age, 24 July 1995, p. 13.
26 Jones, Art & Life, pp. 90-91.
27 Roderic Anderson, Free Radical: A memoir of a gay political activist, [Caboolture, QLD]: The Author, 2006, pp. 102-103.
28 Barrett Reid and Nancy Underhill, eds, Letters of John Reed: defining Australian cultural life, 1920-1981, Ringwood, Vic.: Viking, 2001, p. 435.
29 Osborne, Giving it Away, p. 41.
30 Barrett Reid, 'I am Hiding in a Rose: a farewell for Sweeney', 31 March 1979.
31 Richard Haese, interview with Barrett Reid, 3 July 1981, PA 95/161, Box 74, wallet 1, Barrett Reid Papers, MS 13339, SLV.
32 Diana Georgeff, Delinquent Angel, Sydney: Random House, 2007, p. 191.
33 Ibid, pp. 329-330.
34 Jones, Art & Life, p. 238.
196
35 Georgeff, Delinquent Angel, p. 277.
36 Barrett Reid, 'Making it New in Australia: some notes on Sunday and John Reed', in Angry Penguins and Realist Painting in Melbourne in the 1940s, Hayward Gallery, London, 19 May-14 August 1988, South Bank Centre, 1988, p. 52.
37 Reid and Underhill, eds, Letters of John Reed, pp. xii-xiii.
38 John Barnes, 'From Barjai to Overland: a note on Barrie Reid', La Trobe Journal, no. 64, Spring 1999, p. 30.
39 Bryony Cosgrove, Portrait of a Friendship: the letters of Barbara Blackman and Judith Wright, 1950-2000, Carlton, Vic.: Miegunyah Press, 2007, p. 566.
40 Ibid, pp. 599-601.
41 Susan McCulloch, 'The Heide Feud', Australian, 3 November 1995, p. 15.
42 Kathy Hunt, 'Sunday et al on my mind', Australian, 9 December 1998, p. 5.
43 Philip Jones, 'Betrayal at Heide', Australian, 10 February 1999, p. 28.
44 John Philip, 'Barrett Reid – a memoir', (Funeral oration delivered on 10 August 1995), Overland, no. 142, 1996, pp. 31-34.
45 Philip Jones, 'Self-imposed silence of an unsure poet', Australian, 8 August 1995, p. 18.
46 Barnes, 'From Barjai to Overland', pp. 30-32.
47 Haese, Interview with Barrett Reid, 2 September 1985.
48 Georgeff, Delinquent Angel, p. 334.
49 Reid, Making Country, p. 87.

Agents of Social Change? LGBT voices in Australian museums

1 The Lesbian, Bisexual, Gay and Transgender Material Survey was a project conducted in 2005 and jointly sponsored and organised by Museum Victoria, the State Library of Victoria, and the Australian Lesbian and Gay Archives. Kate Davison was employed for 6 months on a part-time basis to conduct the Survey, and the report of the project was released as an official Museum Victoria document: Kate Davison, Lesbian, Bisexual, Gay & Transgender Material Survey: project report, Melbourne: Museum Victoria, 2006. This article relies heavily on the survey report.
2 Mark Liddiard, 'Changing Histories: museums, sexuality and the future of the past', Museum and Society, vol. 2, no. 1, March 2004, p. 22.
3 S. Frost, 'Museums and the Collecting, Displaying and Interpretation of Sex and Sexuality', unpublished MA thesis, Leicester: University of Leicester, 2001, quoted in Liddiard, 'Changing Histories', p. 42.
4 For an account of these debates, see Stuart Macintyre and Anna Clark, The History Wars, 2nd edition, Carlton North, Vic.: Melbourne University Publishing, 2004, esp. chapter 10, 'Working Through the Museum's Labels', pp. 191-215.
5 See for example Richard Sandell, 'Social Inclusion, the Museum and the Dynamics of Sectoral Change', Museum & Society, vol. 1, no. 1, 2003, on museum practices in the United Kingdom.
6 Museums, Libraries & Archives (UK), 2009, 'Marketing Approaches in Norfolk Libraries', http://www.mla.gov.uk/what/raising_standards/best_practice/Community%20Engagement/Norwich_ marketing (accessed 8 July 2010).
7 Richard Sandell, Museums, Prejudice and the Reframing of Difference, Oxford: Routledge, 2007, p. 2.
8 Of the 35 areas, others included 'Transportation', 'Australian Children's Literature', 'Family History' and 'Agrictulture'. State Library of New South Wales, 2009, 'Documenting Life in New South Wales: gay and lesbian life and culture', http://www.sl.nsw.gov.au/doclifensw/social/gayles.cfm (accessed 8 July 2010).
9 'Queer: A Rowden White Library List', Melbourne: Rowden White Library, University of Melbourne Student Union, 2003, unpublished.
197
10 SA Memory, February 2010, http://www.samemory.sa.gov.au/site/page.cfm?u=648 (accessed 8 July 2010).
11 Australian Lesbian and Gay Archives, http://home.vicnet.net.au/~alga/links.htm (accessed 8 July 2010).
12 Jo Darbyshire, 'Gay Museum Catalogue', Perth 2003, http://www.jodarbyshire.com/files/gay_ museum_catalogue.pdf (accessed 8 July 2010).
13 Telephone conversation with Helen Light, Director, Australian Jewish Museum, May 2005.
14 Farah Farouque, 'Gathering Clues to Melbourne's Secret Gay Past', Age, 15 April 2005.
15 Garry Wotherspoon, 'From Private Vice to Public History: Homosexuality in Australia', Public History Review, vol. 1, 1992, p. 150.
16 Jocelyn Dodd, Richard Sandell, Annie Delin and Jackie Gay, 'Beggars, Freaks and Heroes? Museum collections and the hidden history of disability', Museum Management and Curatorship, vol. 20, 2005, and Jocelyn Dodd, Richard Sandell, Annie Delin and Jackie Gay, Buried In The Footnotes: the representation of disabled people in museum and gallery collections, Leicester: Research Centre for Museums and Galleries, University of Leicester, September 2004. That project was followed up by a more extensive undertaking, from 2006-2009. Jocelyn Dodd, Richard Sandell, Debbie Jolly and Ceri Jones, eds, Rethinking Disability Representation in Museums and Galleries, Leicester: Research Centre for Museums and Galleries, University of Leicester, December 2008.
17 Mark Honigsbaum, 'Search for Gay History to Create Virtual Museum', Guardian, 12 December 2005.
18 Acknowledgement for the original concept upon which this model was based must go to Consultative Committee member Colin Batrouney, Victorian AIDS Council.
19 It is worth noting that the Museum of London has been undergoing a similar process of developing a collections framework, and has established an advisory group dedicated to this purpose. Museum of London, Raminder Kaur, June 2005, http://www.museumoflondon.org.uk/English/Collections/OnlineResources/RWWC/Essays/Essay1/ (accessed 14 July 2010).
20 The careful and methodical work of Museum Victoria volunteer Chris Friday must be acknowledged here.
21 http://museumvictoria.com.au/collections/items/1111270/teapot-silver-trophy-missnewcomb-1857 (accessed 10 November 2010). The diary of Anne Drysdale is held at the State Library of Victoria: MS 6294, MS 6208 and H15215. The teapot and its significance is discussed in Bev Roberts' article – 'Miss Newcomb's Teapot' – in this issue.
22 http://museumvictoria.com.au/collections/themes/2730/lesbian-gay-bisexual-transgender-project-museum-victoria-2005-2006 and http://museumvictoria.com.au/collections/themes/2832/gay-liberation-movement (accessed 10 November 2010).
23 Deb Tout-Smith (on behalf of Cr Julian Hill, City of Port Phillip), 'The Gay Museum Exhibition Brief', unpublished proposal, October 2004. On file at Museum Victoria, History & Technology Department.
24 Equal Opportunity Act 1995, incorporating amendments as at 3 April 2003, Melbourne: Anstat, 2003, pp. 14-15.
25 Gay and Lesbian Policy Guidelines For Museum Programs and Practice, Parkes, ACT: Museums Australia Incorporated, 1999.
26 Collection Development Plan – Cultural Diversity, Melbourne: Museum Victoria, October 2004.
27 Collection Development Policy, Melbourne: State Library of Victoria, 2001. Italics added.
28 See, for example, Library of Congress Subclass HQ 'The family. Marriage. Women' which contains the sub-categories: Sexuality, Bisexuality, Homosexuality, Transvestitism, Transsexualism, Erotica, Free Love, and Lifestyle, all of which could prove to be relevant. Library of Congress, 'Library of Congress Classification Outline, Class H, Social Sciences'. http://www.loc.gov/catdir/cpso/lcco/lcco_h.pdf (accessed 8 July 2010).
198
29 http://www.laganz.org.nz/collections/html Last updated: 26 October 2010.
30 http://www.cityofsydney.nsw.gov.au/Development/CityImprovements/PublicArt/PlinthProject/CAMPStonewall.asp (accessed 10 November 2010).
31 Richard Sandell, University of Leicester, School of Museum Studies homepage: http://www.le.ac.uk/ms/contactus/richardsandell.html (accessed 14 July 2010).

Towards Homosexual Equality in Victoria

1 John Rentsch and Gerry Carman, 'Police go gay to lure homosexuals ', Age, 12 January 1977, p. 3.
2 'Sex laws ought not have bias', editorial, Age, 22 February 1977.
3 See 'Report of the Equal Opportunity Advisory Council to the Honourable R.J. Hamer, E.D., M.P., Premier of Victoria, The Decriminalisation of Consensual Homosexual Offences', undated, copy held by Australian Lesbian and Gay Archives, Articles, monographs and pamphlets collection, item 880 (unpublished).
4 For a full account of the parliamentary debate on homosexual law reform in Victoria, see Hansard, 11 December 1980, pp. 5010-5081 and 17 December 1980, pp. 5468-5475 (for Lower House Debate) and 3 December 1980, pp. 4090-4137 and 4 December 1980, pp. 4259-4300 and 17 December 1980, pp. 5468-5474 (for Upper House debate). For a gay viewpoint on the debate, see Adam Carr, 'The Great Homosexual Debate', Gay Community News, vol. 3, no. 1, February 1981, pp. 10-12.
5 This was not the end of the campaign for legal equality. As a result of persistent lobbying by homosexual activists, the Cain Labor Government introduced legislation in 1986 that repealed the offence of soliciting for immoral sexual purposes. The general age of consent in Victoria was lowered to 16 in 1991 with the passage of the Crimes (Sexual Offences) Act 1991).

Join Gay Lib, Parkville 1974. Photograph by Rennie Ellis.

199

Notes on Contributors

Graham Carbery was a gay liberation activist in the 1970s for law reform and gay teachers. He is a life member of the Australian Lesbian & Gay Archives.
Shane Carmody is Director of Collections and Access at the State Library of Victoria and has enjoyed making strange bedfellows of Winston Churchill, Edward Gibbon, and Bertram Mackennal (amongst others) in his article on Boehm's 'St George and the Dragon'.
Kate Davison holds a degree (with honours) in History from the University of Melbourne. She currently lives in Berlin, Germany, where she is completing an MA in English Studies at the Free University, while working as a research assistant in the Centre for the History of Emotions at the Max Planck Institute for Human Development.
Michael Hurley is an Adjunct Associate Professor at the Australian Research Centre in Sex, Health and Society, La Trobe University, Melbourne. His recent publications include 'Gay and Lesbian Writing and Publishing in Australia, 1961-2001', Australian Literary Studies (2010); 'Sexual Health and Contemporary Gay Cultures', in Olivier Jablonski, et al. eds. Sante Gaie, Paris (2010); and, with Garrett Prestage, et al, Pleasure and Sexual Health (2010).
Susan Long is a librarian with a background in photography and filmmaking. She currently works in the Pictures Collection at the State Library of Victoria. In 2011 she is undertaking a Staff Fellowship to identify and redeem previously unseen photographic images of Melbourne Streetscapes held in the Pictures Collection.
Daniel Marshall is a Lecturer in the School of Education at Deakin University, where his research focuses on queer sexualities. He has been involved in queer, unionist and civil rights activism and is Vice-President of the Australian Lesbian and Gay Archives. He has previously worked in social policy and has a PhD in Cultural Studies from the University of Melbourne.
Wayne Murdoch is currently working on a PhD which examines the homosexual male subculture of Melbourne in the nineteen-twenties and thirties. To pay the bills he works in departmental administration at the University of Melbourne.
Phyllis Miranda Papps is a researcher, writer and editor having previously worked for 37 years as a public librarian at a senior managerial level and policy advisor for local and state government. Since her retirement in 1999, she has been researching the life and times of Barrett Reid with the ultimate goal of writing his biography.
200
Richard Peterson, an architect for 40 years, committed to the contextual depth of historic environments, and a son of Melbourne, has written six books, including three published on the internet, many articles and papers, and is subject of a short film. He 'frequented', as they say, the Woolshed at the Hotel Australia for five years.
Bev Roberts is a writer and historian. Her publications include the edited diary of Anne Drysdale, Miss D & Miss N: an extraordinary partnership (2009); Raheen: a house and its people (2007) and Treasures of the State Library of Victoria (2003).
Liz Ross has been active in Women's and Gay Liberation, and socialist politics since the early 1970s, and now in Socialist Alternative. As a union delegate in the 1980s and 1990s, she was involved in and has written extensively about workers struggles and the environment, including Dare to Struggle, Dare to Win! and How Capitalism is Destroying the Planet (2009).
Graham Willett teaches Australian Studies at the University of Melbourne. He has been researching and writing Australian gay and lesbian history since about 1979 while also being active in the gay and lesbian movement, trade unions and the left. He is the author of Living Out Loud: a history of gay and lesbian activism in Australia (2000); co-editor of Secret Histories of Queer Melbourne (2011) and author of several articles and chapters on Australian GLQ history. He is also President of the Australian Lesbian and Gay Archives.
inside back cover

The State Library of Victoria Foundation

was established in 1994 to raise funds to support the State Library of Victoria. It encourages and promotes private philanthropy and corporate sponsorship for State Library projects, including preservation of Victoria's cultural heritage, conservation of valuable collections, acquisitions of items of historical significance, and delivery of educational programs and research services to the community.
Anyone interested in the vital work of the Foundation can assist by becoming a Foundation member or donor.
Member: $85 per year (GST included)
Bookplate Donor:
Upon payment of the $85 membership fee, members are entitled to become Bookplate donors by making the following donations. All donations are tax deductible.
Lewin Bookplate $175 donation
Audubon Bookplate $500 donation
Gould Bookplate $1000 donation
In addition to member benefits, Bookplate donors are acknowledged by special bookplates in books selected from the Library's recent acquisitions.
Membership Benefits:
A $25 book voucher from Reader's Feast Bookshop on becoming a Foundation member
Mailed copies of the State Library of Victoria News, the biannual scholarly publication, The La Trobe Journal, and periodic member newsletters
Discounts to Library events and on hiring fees for Library venues
Invitations to member-only events
Discounts on quality wine through the Ex Libris Wine Club
Access to the Members' Lounge (off the La Trobe Reading Room)
Discounts are also offered to Foundation members by:
Australian National Academy of Music; food&desire; Good Reading Magazine; Palace Cinemas; Mr Tulk café; News Magazines; Paper World; QV Melbourne (including parking); The Hotel Windsor (Spring Street Restaurant); Readings at the State Library; The Comic's Lounge; walk-to-art; MIRVAC Hotels & Resorts.
For further information or to join the Foundation, telephone 03 8664 7280, email foundation@slv.vic.gov.au or visit the State Library website: http://slv.vic.gov.au.
Principal Patron: Dame Elisabeth Murdoch, AC, DBE
Executive Director: Michael van Leeuwen
Executive: Peter Lothian (Chairman), Martin Armstrong, John Arnold (Editor, The La Trobe Journal), John Cain (President, State Library Board of Victoria), Andrew Coloretti, Arturo Gandioli Fumagalli, Gary Graco, Claire Hausler, Julie Kantor, Stephen Kerr, Robert Lang, John Mortimore, David Mullaly, and Professor Andrew Reeves.
Designed and typeset by Mark Brewster (mark@mb-dc.com) and printed by Ellikon Certified Green Printing, 384 George Street, Fitzroy, 3065. Ph. (03) 9417 3121
back cover
Queer City of the South: Gay and Lesbian Melbourne presents a history that will be new to many readers. Using archives, remembrance, experience, and refl ection, the various contributors bring new insights to our knowledge and understanding of Melbourne.
The articles in this special issue of the La Trobe Journal cover both historical and contemporary subjects, ranging from the relationship between the two female pastoralists, Anne Drysdale and Caroline Newcomb, to an account of how museums and libraries are now dealing with LGBT related material.
There is also a strong focus on the 1970s, the decade of Gay Liberation, including memoirs and a portfolio of photographs taken by Rennie Ellis during Gay Pride Week in 1973. There are also refl ections on what is GLQ history and how is this new and emerging history practised.