State Library of Victoria > La Trobe Journal

No 86 December 2010

[Back matter]

137

Endnotes

'All Burke's books &c have been saved': the Burke and Wills Papers in the State Library of Victoria

1. Robert O' Hara Burke, Dispatch, Mia Mia, 26 Aug 1860, Box 2082/1a, MS 13071 Victorian Exploring Expedition Records, Australian Manuscripts Collection, State Library of Victoria. (All boxes quoted hereafter are from either this collection or MS 13071 Royal Society of Victoria Exploration Committee Records (hereafter EC) unless otherwise stated.)
2. Hermann Beckler, Medical reports, 1861, Box 2082/4 (a and b).
3. EC Leader's copy of Instructions to the Geologist, Zoologist and Botanist, Box 2082/3b.
4. Most of Beckler's submissions to the EC were not released to the press, with the notable exception of his Diary, 21 Dec 1860-5 Jan 1861, Box 2083/3a, which was published as A Journey from the Darling to the swamp Duroodoo,' Argus, 6 February 1861, p. 6.
5. Hermann Beckler, Stephen Jeffries and Michael Kertesz, A Journey to Cooper's Creek, Carlton, Vic.: Melbourne University Press at the Miegunyah Press in association with the State Library of Victoria, 1993, pp. xi-xlv. The SLV has recently acquired a transcription of Beckler's manuscript from the Heimatmuseum Hochstadt; Beckler, Papers 1855-[18-?], PA 260, SLV.
6. Beckler, Reports, Nov 1860, Box 2082/2e and Box 2082/4; Notes on plants, Box 2082/5 (c and d); Dispatch, Menindie, 6 Aug 1861, Box 2082/1c; Beckler's maps and pictures are in the Ludwig Becker sketchbook, H16486, Australian Manuscripts Collection, SLV.
7. Ludwig Becker, Five reports submitted between Sep 1860Jan 1861, Box 2082/4 (c-g); maps and pictures are in the Ludwig Becker sketchbook, H16486.
8. Becker, Report, Darling River, 22 Jan 1861, Box 2082/4g.
9. Ibid.
10. EC, Leader's copy of Instructions, Box 2082/3b.
11. Becker, Report, Box 2082/4g.
12. Georg Neumayer, letter to Macadam, 2 Sep 1861, Box 2082/5f.
13. Marjorie Tipping, Ludwig Becker: artist & naturalist with the Burke & Wills expedition, Carlton, Vic.: Melbourne University Press for the Library Council of Victoria, 1979.
14. Beckler, Jeffries and Kertesz, Cooper's Creek, 1993.
15. William Wills (ed.), A Successful Exploration Through the Interior of Australia, from Melbourne to the Gulf of Carpentaria, London: Richard Bentley, 1863.
16. William John Wills, Correspondence and press cuttings, 1839-1861, MS 9504, Australian Manuscripts Collection, SLV.
17. Wills, MS 9504. Letter to Sarah Wills, 22 Apr 1855.
18. Argus, 2 Mar 1855, p. 4.
19. Dept of Crown Lands and Survey, Salaries Registers 1857-8, VPRS 15031/P1, Public Records Office of Victoria (PROV).
20. James Hamlet Taylor, Outward Letter Book, District Survey Office Ballarat, 1856-8, VPRS 15602/P1, PROV. Memo No. 58/102, 1 Feb 1858.
21. Plan of Goldfields in the Parish of Kingower, 1857, GF12, VPRS 8168, Historic Map Collection, PROV.
22. Parliament of Victoria, Report from the select committee upon Mr Frederick Byerley's case, Parliamentary Papers D25, Melbourne: John Ferres. 1858-9.
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23. W. J. Wills, Foreman, 1858, VPRS 44 Unit 755, PROV. Wills was working at St Arnaud when his employment terminated in 1858.
24. Wills, Successful Exploration, p. 53.
25. Wills, Memorandum book, SepNov 1860, Box 2083/1e.
26. Wills, Successful Exploration, p. 86.
27. Neumayer, Results of the Magnetic Survey of the Colony of Victoria Executed During the Years 1858-1864, Mannheim, Germany: J Schneider, 1869.
28. Wills, Surveyor's field notes, Box 2082/6 (a and b); Plan showing the route of the Victorian Exploring Expedition from Balranald to the Darling, MC1 D7 (H6196), SLV.
29. Neumayer, Results of the Magnetic Survey.
30. Wills, Astronomical observations AugOct 1860, Box 2083/1c.
31. EC Minute books, Box 2088B/1, p.101, minutes, 5 [sic, 4] Feb 1861.
32. Becker, Fifth Report, Box 2082/4g.
33. Becker, Third Report, Box 2082/4e.
34. Wills, Surveyor's field notes, Box 2082/6c. Diary entry for 11 Oct 1860.
35. Application currently before the New South Wales Geographic Names Board based on research carried out by Dave Phoenix as part of a PhD being undertaken at James Cook University.
36. Burke Dispatch, Torowoto, Box 2082/1a (12); Wills, Surveyor's field notes, Box 2082/6e. Diary entry for 28 Oct 1860.
37. Wills, Surveyor's report, 30 Oct 1860, Box 2082/5a; Surveyor's field notes, Box 2082/6 (c and d); Maps relating to Burke and Wills, MCFB2 (H3427) and MC8/3 (H3428), both in MS 9091, SLV.
38. Wills, Third surveyor's report, Box 2082/5b; Surveyor's field notes, Box 2082/6 (e-j); Maps relating to Burke and Wills, MC8/3 (H4329), MS 9091.
39. Argus, 1 July 1861, pp. 6-7.
40. Dept of Crown Lands and Survey, 'Tracing shewing the route of the Victorian Exploration Expedition from Bilbarka to the Depot on Cooper's Creek', 2 July 1861, MAPS 809 ATE 1860 WILLS, SLV.
41. Parliament of Victoria, Commission of Enquiry into the deaths of Burke and Wills, Melbourne: John Ferres, 1862. Questions 180 and 744.
42. Wills, 'Journal of trip from Cooper Creek towards Adelaide,' 1861, MS 30/7, National Library of Australia (NLA); Astronomical observations, Box 2083/1d.
43. The two items currently listed in the Australian Manuscripts Collection as 'Wills, Field book, 22 Nov 186014 Feb 1861, Box 2083/1c,' and 'Field notes, 15 Feb24 Apr 1861, Box 2082/6k,' are actually the work of William Brahe.
44. Wills, 'Last notes', 30 May 1861, Safe 1, SLV.
45. Argus, 28 Dec 1861, p. 5.
46. Argus, [dispatch from an Argus correspondent…], 3 Nov 1861, Box 2082/1d (1).
47. EC, Minute books, Box 2088B/1, p. 101; Age, 5 Nov 1861, p. 5.
48. Argus, 6 Nov 1861, p. 5.
49. EC Minute books, Box 2088B/1, p.160 and Box 2075/3b, 29 Nov 1861; Age, 30 Nov 1861, p. 4.
50. Argus, 1 Sep 1863, p. 6.
51. Argus, 30 July 1863, p. 5.
52. EC, Minute books, Box 2088B/1, p.269; Argus, 12 Aug 1863, p. 6; 13 Aug 1863, p. 4.
53. James Smith, 'John King's story,' Australasian, 7 May 1870, p. 58; 14 May, p. 614; 21 May, p. 648.
54. Gerard Hayes, 'Paper Trails: The navigational records of the Burke and Wills Expedition in the
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State Library of Victoria,' La Trobe Library Journal, no. 58, Spring 1996, Melbourne: Friends of the State Library of Victoria, pp. 14-18.
Available on-line at: http://www.slv.vic.gov.au/latrobejournal/issue/latrobe-58/tl-g-t4.html.
55. EC Minute books, Box 2088B/1, pp. 101, 150.
56. Argus, 7 Nov 1861, p. 5.
57. Mueller, Transcription of Wills' 'Journey from Coopers Creek to Carpentaria', 5 Nov 1861, Box 2083/1a.
58. Joseph Stewart Weatherston, Unpublished manuscript and papers, c.1940-4, MS 295/2, NLA.
59. EC, correspondence between Mueller and Dickson, 28-30 Jan 1862, Box 2078/3.
60. Smith's transcription is not listed as a separate ms, but is included with Mueller's transcription at Box 2083/1a.
61. Dept Crown Lands and Survey, Explorers 22, 5 Nov 1861, VPRS 8168/P1, Historic Plan Collection. PROV.
62. 'Portion of diary kept by Robert O' Hara Burke', MS30/1 and William John Wills' journal of trip 'from Cooper Creek towards Adelaide', MS30/7, both at the National Library of Australia.
63. James Smith, Papers, 1837-1909, ML MSS 212, Mitchell Collection, State Library of New South Wales. Entry for 1 Jan 1863.
64. Royal Society of Victoria, Supplementary Final Report of the Exploration Committee, Melbourne: Mason and Firth, 1873.

The Early Livestock Trade Between Gippsland and Van Diemen's Land: insights from Patrick Coady Buckley's Journal of 1844

Acknowledgement: The research for this article was made possible through a La Trobe Society Fellowship at the State Library of Victoria, generously sponsored by the Shoppee Family, Melbourne.
1. Melbourne Weekly Courier, 3 February 1844.
2. Hobart Town Courier, 27 February 1844; Port Phillip Patriot, 27 January 1845. Livestock was also shipped to Launceston, but to a much lesser extent.
3. Alan E. J. Andrews, Earliest Monaro and Burragorang: 1790 to 1840, Palmerston, ACT: Tabletop Press, 1998; John S. Trengrove, Maneroo Backtrack, Reservoir, Vic.: The Author, 2007.
4. R. V. Billis and A. S. Kenyon, Pastoral Pioneers of Port Phillip, Melbourne: Stockland Press, 1974 (first published 1932), p. 35.
5. Paul Strzelecki, 'Return to an Address of the Honourable the House of Commons', 26 February 1841, 'Copy of a Despatch from Sir G. Gipps, Governor of New South Wales, to the Secretary of State for the Colonies, transmitting a report of the progressive discovery and occupation of that colony during the period of his administration of the government', [London]: House of Commons, 1841. Strzelecki's return refers to the northern part of Gippsland.
6. Gippsland Times (Sale), 18 June 1872.
7. Billis and Kenyon, pp. 191, 287.
8. Gippsland Times, 18 June 1872.
9. John Adams, From These Beginnings: history of the Shire of Alberton, Yarram, Vic.: Alberton Shire Council, 1990.
10. James Francis Hogan, The Irish in Australia, Melbourne: George Robertson, 1888, p. 127.
11. Hogan, p. 129.
12. For example, Don Watson in Caledonia Australis: Scottish Highlanders on the Australian Frontier, Sydney: Collins, 1984, refers to Buckley as 'vicious' and 'a humbug' (p. 227).
13. For details on the role of convicts in the Port Phillip District see A. G. L. Shaw, A History of the Port Phillip District: Victoria before separation, Carlton, Vic: MUP at the Miegunyah Press, 1996, pp. 85,
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204 and passim.
14. J. W. McCarty, 'The Staple Approach in Australian Economic History', Business Archives and History, vol. 4, no. 1, 1964, pp. 1-22.
15. 'Tanjil' (John King),'Early Reminiscences of the Discovery of Gippsland', in Our Trip to Gippsland Lakes and Rivers, Melbourne: M. L. Hutchinson, 1882, p. 5.
16. Ibid, p. 7.
17. See Day Book 1844-49, King Family Papers, MS 11396, Australian Manuscripts Collection, State Library of Victoria.
18. R. M. Hartwell, The Economic Development of Van Diemen's Land: 1820-1850, Melbourne: Melbourne University Press, 1954.
19. Marten Syme, Shipping Arrivals and Departures, Victorian Ports. Volume 1 1798-1845, Melbourne: Roebuck Books, Melbourne, 1984.
20. Port Phillip Patriot, 29 August 1842.
21. Ibid. And see the Hobart Town Courier of 15 March 1845 for details of contracts awarded.
22. Hobart Town Courier, 21 October 1842.
23. Melbourne Weekly Courier, 27 January 1844.
24. Hobart Town Courier, 21 October 1842; Melbourne Weekly Courier, 24 February 1844.
25. Melbourne Weekly Courier, 3 February 1844; Maitland Mercury (Newcastle, NSW), 30 March 1844.
26. Patrick Coady Buckley, Diary, 1844, January 1-1861, December 31, PA 02/121, Australian Manuscripts Collection, State Library of Victoria.
27. William Wade's Coal Hole Station, next to Buckley's Tarra Creek run, see Billis and Kenyon, p. 191.
28. Mashfield Mason, holder of the Woodside run, see Billis and Kenyon, p. 112.
29. Joseph Davis, Emu Flat run, see Billis and Kenyon, p. 56
30. John Collins, Snugborough run, see Billis and Kenyon, p. 49.
31. Edmund Buckley, Gammon Creek run; stepfather of Patrick Coady Buckley, see Billis and Kenyon, p. 35.
32. Presumably the son of William George Thom, Gippsland squatter 1844-45, see Billis and Kenyon, p. 148.
33. Wrecked on the Port Albert bar March 1852.
34. Graeme Broxam, Shipping Arrivals and Departures, Tasmania. Volume 3 1843-1850, Woden, ACT: Navarine Publishing, 1998.
35. Hobart Town Courier, 4 March 1842.
36. Hobart Town Courier, 15 March 1845.
37. Lew Lind, Fair Winds to Australia: 200 hundred years of sail on the Australian Station, Frenchs Forest, NSW: Reed Books, 1988, p. 71.
38. Hobart Town Courier, 2 July 1845.
39. Wrecked on the Port Albert bar, July 1850.
40. Buckley's use of the term 'charter' is a little ambiguous, as he used the same word when he had organised the charter himself or if the captains approached him for a cargo.

The Pacificator: discovering the lost bust of George Augustus Robinson

Acknowledgement: In developing this article I am indebted to John Arnold, Penelope Edmonds, David Hansen, Allison Ingles, Lynette Russell, and the anonymous referee for rigorous critiques of earlier versions.
1. Mark Twain, Following the Equator, Stilwell, Arkansas: http://Digireads.com Publishing, 2008 [first published in 1897], p. 121. Twain must have missed Robinson's bust when he visited the Public Library, Museums and National Gallery complex on Swanston Street, Melbourne, of which he commented: 'In the museums you will find acres of the most strange and fascinating things; but all museums are fascinating, and they do so tire your eyes, and break your back, and burn out your
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vitalities with their consuming interest' (p. 79). Or perhaps it had already been taken off display!
2. David Hansen in a recent essay reflecting on the politics of historical representation surrounding the attempted sale in 2009 and displaying of Benjamin Law's busts of Truganini and Wourredy stated 'Law's only other known bust, of Robinson himself, has been lost'. It is an irony that I found the bust as Hansen's essay was going to print. David Hansen, 'Calibre Prize: seeing Truganini', Australian Book Review, May 2010, pp. 45-53.
3. Ann Galbally, The First Collections: the Public Library and the National Gallery of Victoria in the 1850s and the 1860s: University Gallery, the University of Melbourne Museum of Art 14 May15 July 1992, Parkville, Vic.: The Museum, 1992, p. 81.
4. It is possible that this is a typographical error. One of Robinson's friends was Henry Downing, and he was responsible for exhibiting the busts of Wourredy and Truganini in the 1865 Intercolonial Exhibition in Melbourne. Unfortunately the original handwritten register note in the State Library no longer exists and therefore this cannot be verified.
5. Ian D. Clark, 'George Augustus Robinson on Charles Joseph La Trobe: Personal Insights into a Problematical Relationship', La Trobe Journal (Special Issue: Indigenous Victorians: repressed, resourceful and respected), no. 85, May 2010, pp. 13-21.
6. The inscription is degraded, but a close examination using different lighting sources is definitive.
7. For biographical details see, Lyndall Ryan and Neil Smith', Trugernanner (Truganini) (1812? -1876)', Australian Dictionary of Biography, vol 6. Available on line at http://www.adb.online.edu.au/biogs.
8. Margaret Glover, 'Benjamin Law 1807-90', The Art Bulletin of Tasmania, 1985, pp. 34-39, Paul Paffen, and Margaret Glover, 'The Hannah and Benjamin Law Letters', Tasmanian Historical Research Association, Papers and Proceedings, vol. 45, no. 2, 1998, pp. 164-85 (169).
9. Paffen and Glover. 'The Hannah and Benjamin Law Letters', p. 173.
10. Vivienne Rae-Ellis, Black Robinson: Protector of Aborigines. [New ed, MUP Australian Lives], Carlton, Vic.: Melbourne University Press, 1996.
11. Ibid, p. 3
12. Clive Turnbull, Black war: the extermination of the Tasmanian Aborigines. South Melbourne, Vic., Sun Books, 1974 (first published in 1948).
13. Rae-Ellis, Black Robinson.
14. N. J. B. Plomley and George Robinson, Weep in Silence: a history of the Flinders Island Aboriginal settlement; with the Flinders Island journal of George Augustus Robinson, 1835-1839, Sandy Bay, Tas.: Blubber Head Press, 1987, p. 650. For the original see: Robinson to Thomas Northover, 14 September 1836, 'Papers of George Augustus Robinson', vol. 23, Letter Book 1836-38, A7044, Mitchell Collection, State Library of New South Wales, pp. 88-88.
15. Paffen and Glover, 'The Hannah and Benjamin Law Letters'.
16. Hobart Town Courier, 3 April 1835, p. 2.
17. Penelope Edmonds, 'Colonial Quotations: Tasmanian Potter Violet Mace and the Proclamation Cup', ReCollections, due (Nov. 2010), p. 16.
18. Mary Mackay, 'Early Tasmanian Sculptures: a reassessment', Bowyang, no. 5, April/May, 1981, pp. 6-12 (5). At the time of publishing, none of these are known to have survived.
19. Tim Bonyhady, 'Benjamin Duterrau's Paintings of the Conciliation of the Tasmanian Aborigines', Bowyang, no. 3, April 1980, pp. 93-105 (98).
20. Advertisement, 'Trucaninny', Hobart Town Courier, 7 October 1836, p. 3.
21. James Ross, Hobart Town Courier, 3 April 1835, p. 2.
22. Advertisement, Hobart Town Courier, 11 September 1835, p. 1.
23. Paffen and Glover, 'The Hannah and Benjamin Law Letters'.
24. Robinson annotated headings on most of these newspapers as 'Bust of Woureddy' or 'Bust of Native Chief – he didn't annotate advertisement/articles. See Museum Victoria, Indigenous Cultures Department Catalogue numbers XM3009; XM2971; XM2956; XM2970; XM2955; XM3022.
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25. Henry Reynolds, Fate of a Free People, Ringwood, Vic.: Penguin, 1995, p. 141.
26. James Ross, Hobart Town Courier, 7 October, p. 2.
27. Robinson to Thomas Northover, 'Papers of George Augustus Robinson' (see note 14). Lady Franklin subsequently forwarded a bust of Truganini to the same society. See Plomley and Robinson, Weep in Silence, p. 578.
28. Robinson to Thomas Northover, 'Papers of George Augustus Robinson'.
29. Journal entry 15 March 1839, Ian D. Clark, The Journals of George Augustus Robinson, Chief Protector, Port Phillip Aboriginal Protectorate, vol. 1, Melbourne: Heritage Matters, 1998, p. 15.
30. Gilbert Robertson, 'Fine Arts', True Colonist, 14 October 1836, p. 2; James Ross, Hobart Town Courier, 3 April 1835, p. 2.
31. Robinson to Gamaliel Batter, 22 September 1837, 'Papers of George Augustus Robinson', A7044, Mitchell Collection, State Library of New South Wales, p. 385.
32. Gilbert Robertson, 'Fine Arts'.
33. Plomley and Robinson, Weep in Silence, p. 608. This was one year after Robinson first realised that his busts weren't selling, at which time he was proposing to purchase them at five guineas each. Robinson to Gamaliel Batter, 22 September 1837.
34. Ibid. In the context of the letter it is not clear if Batter's purchase is in addition to Robinson's purchase or part of Robinson's purchase. However I would favour to the former interpretation.
35. James Ross, Hobart Town Courier, 12 June 1835, p. 1.
36. Charles Darwin, Journal of Researches into the Natural History and Geology of the Countries Visited During the Voyage of H.M.S. 'Beagle' Round the World, under the Command of Capt. Fitz Roy, R.A, London: Ward, Lock, 1897, p. 423.
37. Syndicated news from the Hobart based Colonial Times via the Asiatic Journal, published in The Morning Post, London, 16 June 1834, p. 4.
38. Anonymous, 'Select Committee on Aborigines in British Settlements: Report, Minutes of Evidence, Appendix, Index', in House of Commons Papers: Reports of Committees, VII. 1, 1837, p. 14.
39. See page 2 of May 2010 edition of the La Trobe Journal. Some believe it was based on Thomas Blox's 1835 drawings of Robinson. See George Augustus Robinson and N. J. B. Plomley, Friendly Mission: the Tasmanian journals and papers of George Augustus Robinson, 1829-1834, 2nd edn, Launceston, Tas.: Hobart: Queen Victoria Museum and Art Gallery; Quintus, 2008, p. xv.
40. Niall Ferguson, Empire: how Britain made the modern world, London: Penguin, 2004, pp. 113-14.
41. Adam Hochschild, Bury the Chains: the British struggle to abolish slavery, London: Macmillian, 2005, p. 106.
42. Andrew Porter, 'Trusteeship, Anti-Slavery, and Humanitarianism', in The Oxford History of the British Empire: the Nineteenth Century, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999, p. 207.
43. Zoë Laidlaw, Colonial Connections, 1815-45: patronage, the information revolution and colonial government, Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2005, p. 27.
44. Cited in Gareth Knapman, 'Liberal Dreams: materialism and evolutionary civil society in the projection of the nation in Southeast Asia', Asian Ethnicity, vol. 7, no. 1, 2006, pp. 19-36 (32).
45. Lieutenant-Governor Arthur, Proclamation 25 June 1824, in 'Van Diemen's Land. Copies of All Correspondence between Lieutenant-Governor Arthur and His Majesty's Secretary of State for the Colonies, on the Subject of the Military Operations Lately Carried on against the Aboriginal Inhabitants of Van Diemen's Land', House of Commons Papers; Accounts and Papers, XIX. 175, 1831.
46. Reynolds, Fate of a Free People. 121-124.
47. Copy of a Despatch from Lieutenant-Governor Arthur to Viscount Goderich, 10 January 1828, in 'Van Diemen's Land. Copies of All Correspondence between Lieutenant-Governor Arthur and His Majesty's Secretary of State for the Colonies, on the Subject of the Military Operations Lately Carried on against the Aboriginal Inhabitants of Van Diemen's Land'.
48. Reynolds, Fate of a Free People, p. 121.
49. 'Van Diemen's Land. Copies of All Correspondence between Lieutenant-Governor Arthur and His
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Majesty's Secretary of State for the Colonies, on the Subject of the Military Operations Lately Carried on against the Aboriginal Inhabitants of Van Diemen's Land'.
50. Arthur to Viscount Goderich, 10 January 1828.
51. Rae-Ellis, Black Robinson, p. 16.
52. Musing to himself whist pursuing the Big River Tribe, Robinson hypothesized 'what if an armed party was to pursue a band of aborigines, could they capture them? No! The whole face of the country (with few exceptions) serves as a secure retreat', Robinson and Plomley, Friendly Mission, p. 587.
53. Ibid, p. 57.
54. Ferguson, Empire, p. 122.
55. Alan Lester, 'Humanitarians and White Settlers in the Nineteenth Century', in Missions and Empire, edited by Norman Etherington, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005, pp. 64-85 (64).
56. Rae-Ellis, Black Robinson, p. 28.
57. Reynolds, Fate of a Free People, pp. 7-26.
58. Plomley and Robinson. Weep in Silence, p. 663.
59. George Augustus Robinson and Ian D. Clark, The Journals of George Augustus Robinson, p. 19.
60. Rae-Ellis, Black Robinson, p. 159.
61. Benedict Read, Victorian Sculpture, New Haven: Yale University Press for the Paul Mellon Centre for Studies in British Art, 1982, p. 171.
62. Christopher Christie, The British Country House in the Eighteenth Century, Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1999, p. 181.
63. Philip J. Ayres, Classical Culture and the Idea of Rome in Eighteenth-Century England, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997.
64. H. W. Janson, Nineteenth-Century Sculpture, London: Thames and Hudson, 1985, p. 15.
65. Rae-Ellis, Black Robinson, p. 6.
66. Catalogue of the Casts, Busts, Reliefs, and Illustrations of the School of Design and Ceramic Art in the Museum of Art, at the Melbourne Public Library, Melbourne: John Ferres, Govt. Printer, 1865.
67. Robertson, 'Fine Arts'.
68. Rae-Ellis in Black Robinson makes the same scathing critique of Robinson that he is a mesmerist that conned his victims.
69. Ibid.
70. Robertson, 'Fine Arts'.
71. Stephen Scheding, The National Picture, Milsons Point, NSW: Vintage, 2002.
72. Penelope Edmonds, 'Colonial Quotations'.
73. Penelope Edmonds, 'Failing in every endeavour to conciliate: Governor Arthur's Proclamation boards to the Aborigines, Australian Conciliation Narratives and their Transnational Connections', Journal of Australian Studies, Special issue on Visual Culture, due 2011.
74. Henry Reynolds argues that the handshake went beyond iconography and actually constituted a deal between Aboriginal people and the colonial government via Robinson. See Reynolds, Fate of a Free People, pp. 149-157.
75. Mackay, 'Early Tasmanian Sculptures', p. 9.
76. Ibid.
77. Colonial Times, 20 August 1830, p. 3.
78. James Ross, Hobart Town Courier, 26 June 1835, p. 2.
79. James Bonwick, John Batman: the founder of Victoria, 2nd edn, Melbourne: Fergusson and Moore, 1868, p. 74.
80. I owe this analogy to a conversation I had with David Hansen.
81. Robinson and Plomley, Friendly Mission, p. 101.
82. Take for example, Tacitus's account of the Caledonia general Calgacus's speech: 'here at the world's end, on its last inch of liberty, we have lived unmolested to this day, defended
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by our remoteness and obscurity ... but there are not other tribes to come; nothing but sea and cliffs and these more deadly Romans whose arrogance you cannot escape by obedience and self-restraint. Robbers of the world, now that the earth falls into their all-devastating hands, they probe even the sea; if their enemy have wealth they have greed ... [neither] East nor West has glutted them ... to plunder, butcher, steal, these things they misname empire: they make a desolation and they call it peace', Cornelius Tacitus and R. M. Ogilvie, Agricola, Rev. edn, Loeb Classical Library, London: Cambridge; Mass., Harvard University Press, 1970, Book xiv, p. 30.
Or Tacitus rendition of the Boudica speech:
'it is not as a woman descended from noble ancestry, but as one of the people that I am avenging lost freedom, my scourged body, the outraged chastity of my daughters. Roman lust has gone so far that not our very persons, nor even age or virginity, are left unpolluted. But heaven is on the side of a righteous vengeance; a legion which dared to fight has perished; the rest are hiding themselves in their camp, or are thinking anxiously of flight. They will not sustain even the din and the shout of so many thousands, much less our charge and our blows. If you weigh well the strength of the armies, and the causes of the war, you will see that in this battle you must conquer or die. This is a woman's resolve; as for men, they may live and be slaves.' Cornelius Tacitus, Clifford Herschel Moore, and John Jackson, Tacitus: the histories, with an English translation by Clifford F. Moore; the Annals, with an English Translation by John Jackson, 4 vols, The Loeb Classical Library, Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1925, Book xiv, p. 31.
In both these instances, Robinson uses the language and argument structure of Tacitus.
83. Robinson and Plomley, Friendly Mission, p. 805.
84. Mackay, 'Early Tasmanian Sculptures', p. 9.

In Search of Marcus Clarke: a memoir

1. Melbourne: Australian Scholarly Publishing in association with the State Library of Victoria, 2009.
2. 'The redemptive theme in His Natural Life', Australian Literary Studies, vol. 2, no. 1, 1965, pp. 32-49.
3. 'The historical basis of For the Term of His Natural Life', Australian Literary Studies, vol. 1, no. 2, 1963, pp. 104-121.
4. Unnatural Lives: studies in Australian fiction about the convicts, from James Tucker to Patrick White, St Lucia, Qld: UQP, 1972.
5. Brian Elliott, Marcus Clarke, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1958.
6. See Mark Finnane, ed., The Difficulties of My Position: the diaries of Prison Governor John Buckley Castieau, 1855-1884, Canberra: National Library of Australia, 2004.
7. A Colonial City: high and low life, selected journalism of Marcus Clarke, St Lucia, Qld: UQP, 1972.
8. Marcus Clarke, St Lucia, Qld: UQP, 1976.
9. Marcus Clarke, Melbourne: OUP, Australia, 1977.
10. Australian Literary Studies, vol. 8, no. 3, 1977.
11. Marcus Clarke: stories, Sydney: Hale and Iremonger, 1983.
12. Melbourne: Lansdowne Press, 1963.
13. Hamilton Mackinnon, ed, The Marcus Clarke Memorial Volume: containing selections from the writings of Marcus Clarke, together with Lord Rosebery's letter, etc. and a biography of the deceased author, Melbourne: Cameron, Laing, 1884.
14. Sydney: Sydney University Press, 1978.
15. Ringwood, Vic.: Penguin Books, 1970. This was the first full reprint of the original serial version of His Natural Life which ran in the Australian Journal between March 1870 and June 1872. Clarke condensed the text for the first book publication, published in Melbourne by George Robertson in 1874. From 1882 onwards, this version was known as For the Term of His Natural Life. A scholarly edition of the full text edited by Lurline Stuart with historical background by Michael Roe, and
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adaptations by Elizabeth Webby, was published as His Natural Life by the University of Queensland Press in 2001 as part of the 'Academy Editions of Australian Literature' series.
16. "The Australian Crucible: alchemy in Marcus Clarke's His Natural Life, Australian Literary Studies, vol. 15, no. 1, 1991, pp. 38-55.
17. Marcus Clarke's Bohemia: literature and modernity in Colonial Melbourne, Carlton, Vic.: Melbourne University Press, 2004.

'One of the Greatest Sights of the World': Herr Carl Kahler's paintings and prints, 'The Melbourne Cup Series', 1887-89

1. 'Kahler is shown on the shipping lists as having arrived on the 'Massilia', Master D. Shallard, on the 21st December 1885 from London': Letter from Joyce McGraith, former Arts, Music & Performing Arts Librarian, State Library of Victoria, in response to a request from Terry Ingram, Sydney, 23 May, 1983; Kahler may have come second class because he is not listed as a first-class passenger in the list of arrivals on the Massilia: Argus, 22 December 1885, p. 4; George Augustus Sala 'Marvellous Melbourne', Argus, 8 August 1885, p. 5.
2. Official Record of the Centennial Exhibition, Melbourne, 1888-89, Melbourne: Sands & McDougall, 1890, p. 688, p. 221.
3. Argus, 5 January 1889, p. 16; Mercury (Hobart), 14 May 1888, p. 2.
4. For example Frank Woodhouse's painting, The Start of the Melbourne Cup, 1862, was raffled at the Albion Hotel, Carlton, and the Argus noted that the artist had just finished a picture of 'Premier,' for several years the favourite sire of the colonies: Argus, 29 June 1863, p. 5; 30 June 1863, p. 5; See also Frederick Woodhouse, A Record of the Melbourne Cup: giving full account of every race for the cup, with portraits of the winners, Melbourne: F. Woodhouse & Sons, 1889.
5. Victoria Racing Club, The Melbourne Cup: A Complete History, Melbourne: Progress Advertising & Press Agency Co., 1909, p. 3.
6. R. E. N. Twopeny, Town Life in Australia, Sydney: Sydney University Press, 1973, (first published 1883), p. 3.
7. Argus, 4 March 1886, p. 5.
8. These titles conform to the titles of Kahler's paintings and prints after the series in the Victorian Racing Club art collection, Melbourne.
9. See Penny Russell, A Wish of Distinction: colonial gentility and femininity, Carlton, Vic.: Melbourne University Press, 1994, pp. 58-126; Margaret Maynard, Fashioned from Penury: dress as cultural practice in colonial Australia, Melbourne and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1994, pp. 77-98; Andrew Brown-May, Melbourne Street Life: the itinerary of our days, Kew, Vic.: Australian Scholarly Publishing, 1998, pp. 58-61.
10. Graeme Davison, The Rise and Fall of Marvellous Melbourne, Melbourne: Melbourne University Press, 1978, pp. 233-239; Table Talk, 11 January 1889, p. 11; Mercury (Hobart), 19 January 1889, p. 25; Sydney Morning Herald, 13 February 1889, p. 2.
11. Argus, 3 December 1886, p. 5; Table Talk, 16 December 1886, p. 1; Brisbane Courier, 5 December 1891, p. 7.
12. Table Talk, 28 October 1887, p. 5.
13. Argus, 10 December 1887, p. 20; Table Talk, 16 December 1887, p. 2; 17 December 1887, p. 11; 2 December 1887, p. 2.
14. West Australian, 9 January 1888, p. 3.
15. Argus, 10 December 1887, p. 11; 10 December 1887, p. 20; Table Talk, 23 December 1887, p. 2; Age, 15 December 1887, p. 5.
16. Albert Boime, The Academy and French Painting in the Nineteenth Century, London: Phaidon, 1971, pp. 36-41.
17. James Smith, Art in Victoria', The Journal of Australasia, June-December, 1856, pp. 224-5.
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18. 'Art Notes', Argus, 28 May 1891, p. 6; It was several years before some reports were succinct about the work of the Impressionist artists, but even then some came with qualification concerning the relationship between a painting's finish and its effect. Of Streeton's paintings exhibited in 1891, it was reckoned that: 'One of the more striking of the finished pictures is a large jar, filled with chrysanthemums ... Mr Streeton's landscape studies, made for the most part in the open air, in the neighbourhood of Heidelberg, reproduce general effects of atmosphere, light and colour, and the broad aspects of the scenery, rather than the specific details, and suggest more than they describe'.
19. James Smith, Herr Kahler's Celebrated Historical Picture: The Lawn at Flemington on Cup Day with a biographical sketch of the Artist, Melbourne: McCarron Bird, [1887], p. 7.
20. Herr Carl Kahler, Correspondence 1885-87, State Library of Victoria: H 17350, Box 131/1: Janet Clarke to Kahler, 21 April 1887.
21. Herr Carl Kahler, Correspondence 1885-87, State Library of Victoria: H 17350, Box 13/1: M. E. Munro to Kahler, June 3 1887.
22. Argus, 22 December 1887, p. 7; 18 January 1888, p. 4; Table Talk, 20 January 1888, p. 3.
23. Argus, 7 September 1886, p. 7; Victoria Past & Present: Illustrated Special Supplement to the Australasian Sketcher, 1 November 1888, p. 6; Herr Carl Kahler, Correspondence 1885-87, State Library of Victoria: H 17350, Box 131/1: G. Seymour Fort to Kahler, 21 August 1886.
24. Alison Inglis, Aestheticism and Empire: The Grosvenor Gallery Intercolonial Exhibition in Melbourne, 1887', Seize the Day: Exhibitions, Australia and the World, edited by Kate Darian-Smith, Richard Gillespie, Caroline Jordan and Elizabeth Willis, Melbourne: Monash University ePress, p. 16.5; Andrew Montana, The Art Movement in Australia: design taste and society, 1875-1900, Carlton, Vic.: Miegunyah Press, Melbourne University Press, 2000, p. 223.
25. Illustrated between pp. 170-171 in Marguerite Hancock, Colonial Consorts: the wives of Victoria's governors 1839-1900, Melbourne: Miegunyah Press, Melbourne University Press, 2001.
26. Argus, 7 October 1887, p. 7; Angus Trumble, 'Colony and Capital in Australian Impressionist Portraiture', in Terence Lane, Australian Impressionism, Melbourne: National Gallery of Victoria, 2007, pp. 180-87.
27. Argus, 7 September 1886, p. 7; 5 March 1887, p. 14; Table Talk, 26 April, 1889, p. 5.
28. Argus, 16 November 1888, p. 4.
29. Herr Carl Kahler, Correspondence 1885-87, State Library of Victoria: H 17350, Box 131/1: G. Seymour Fort to Kahler, 23 August 1887; Table Talk, 20 January 1888, p. 3.
30. Table Talk, 23 December 1887, p.11. The first edition was printed in Melbourne on 7 January 1888. Including 'a beautiful calendar', it quickly sold out: Table Talk, 20 January 1889, p. 9.
31. Geoffrey Serle, The Rush to be Rich: a history of the colony of Victoria, 1883-1889, Melbourne: Melbourne University Press, 1971, pp. 284-5.
32. 'Herr Carl Kahler' in Victoria and its Metropolis: Past and Present, Alexander Sutherland (editor), vol. 2, Melbourne: McCarron, Bird & Co., 1888, p. 479.
33. Bain Attwood, Possession: Batman's Treaty and the matter of history, Melbourne: Miegunyah Press, Melbourne University Press, 2009, pp. 105-133.
34. Eve Almond, "A Garden of Views": Photographic Records of the Royal Botanic Gardens', in Melbourne's Pride and Glory: 150 Years at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Melbourne: Victorian Historical Society Journal, vol. 67, no. 1, April, pp. 28-65.
35. Argus, 31 October 1887, p. 4.
36. 'Pfaff, Pinschof & Co., Melbourne', Victoria and its Metropolis, vol. 2, 1888, p. 573.
37. Table Talk, 12 February 1886, p. 9; 20 July 1888, p. 10; Argus, 2 April 1887, p. 9.
38. Colonial artistic copyright was established in 1869 in conjunction with the parliamentary act to incorporate the Public Library, Museums and National Gallery of Victoria as a united body governed by Trustees: Supplement to the Victorian Government Gazette, December 31, 1869; 'The Lawn on Cup Day' [photograph of an oil painting] Series No. A1719 (A1719/1), Artistic Copyright Files C Series, (1871-1913), National Archives of Australia, Canberra.
147
39. Mercury (Hobart), 14 May 1888, p. 2; 21 December 1888, p. 2.
40. Mercury (Hobart), 14 May 1888, p. 2; Brisbane Courier, 10 July 1888, p. 5, p. 8; Sydney Morning Herald, 23 November 1889, p. 8.
41. Argus, 4 June 1890, p. 7; Sydney Morning Herald, 22 February 1888, p. 18.
42. Herr Kahler's Celebrated Historical Paintings: "The Melbourne Cup Series", Melbourne: McCarron, Bird & Co., 1888.
43. Argus, 18 September 1883, p. 5; Argus, 29 September 1883, p. 9; Argus, 6 October 1883, p. 13; Argus 6 November 1883, p. 6.
44. Argus, 29 September 1883, p. 16; 6 November 1883, p. 6; Moncure D. Conway's first course of eight lectures in Melbourne comprised: The Pre-Darwinite and Post-Darwinite Worlds; Emerson and his views of Nature; Carlyle and Hero-Worship; The Law of Development and Arrest in Religion; Mother Earth; Women and Evolution; The Trinity of Thought, Word, and Deed; New Prometheus, or Martyrdom of Thought.
45. Argus, 20 November 1883, p. 8.
46. 'But it sometimes happens that an institution survives its original purpose by ingenious adaptation to other and new purposes. If around any such custom there has grown a sense of beauty, if it has become gradually invested with usages which subserve civility and popular enjoyment, it must not be supposed that such unwholesome 'cakes and ale' are to be dispensed with because some people are puritanical.'
47. Argus, 7 January 1889, p. 5; 5 January 1889, p. 16; Table Talk, 11 January 1889, p. 11.
48. Bulletin, 19 January 1889, p. 6; Sydney Morning Herald, 12 February 1889, p. 7; 13 February 1889, p. 2.
49. Alison Inglis, 'Engravings, Chromolithographs, and Autotypes', The First Collections: the Public Library and the National Gallery of Victoria in the 1850s and 1860s, Parkville, Vic.: The University of Melbourne Museum of Art, 1992, pp. 66-72.
50. Andrew Montana, 'From the Royal Academy to a Hotel in Kapunda: the Tour of William Powell Frith's Derby Day in Colonial Australia', Art History, vol. 31, no. 5 (November 2008), pp. 754-85.
51. Age, 17 December 1887, p. 14; Argus, 2 January 1888, p. 5.
52. Argus, 6 November 1889, p. 9; An Alphabetical List of Engravings declared at the Office of The Print Sellers' Association, Haymarket, London: Print Sellers' Association, 1892, p. 88: The prices ranged from £10.10.0 for Artist's Proofs to £3.10.0. for The Derby Day at Flemington.
53. Table Talk, 15 November 1889, p. 5.
54. Argus, 13 January 1890, p. 7.
55. Table Talk, 25 October 1889, p. 5.
56. Official Record of the Centennial International Exhibition, Melbourne, 1888-89, Melbourne: Sands & McDougall, p. 673.
57. Herr Carl Kahler to James Smith, December 1889: James Smith, Letters Received, Mitchell Collection State Library of New South Wales, MSS 212/3 [pp. 487-8]. The quotation retains Kahler's grammar.
58. Table Talk, 2 December 1887, p. 2; December 16, p. 2; Argus August 17, 1889, p.7; 2 October 1889, p. 11; Table Talk, 30 August 1889, p. 6. Kahler purchased an impressionist sketch by Charles Conder at the exhibition, casting himself as a patron in the league of Lady Clarke, the Melbourne intelligentsia and middle-class professionals.
59. Simon Fraser, the successful gold digger, who became a railway builder, a capitalist pastoralist and a parliamentarian, commissioned Millais to paint his portrait for around 1,000 guineas in the mid-1880s: Geoffrey Serle, The Rush to be Rich, 1971, p. 49n, p. 284.
60. Argus, 22 May 1888, p. 8; 27 July 1888, p. 7.
61. Official Record of the Centennial International Exhibition, p. 225; Sheridan Palmer, 'The Latest in Artistic Endeavours', Victorian Icon: the Royal Exhibition Building Melbourne, Kew, Vic.: Australian Scholarly Publishing, 1996, p. 11. Boehm had created the statue of Queen Victoria, which was
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unveiled as an opening event in the Centenary celebrations in Sydney in January 1888, and he also exhibited his large statue The Peasant and the Bull at the Centennial Exhibition. Illustrated London News, Special Australasian supplement, 10 March 1888, p. 13; Argus Exhibition Supplement, 2 August 1888, p. 5.
62. Table Talk, 31 January, 1890, p. 3; 28 November 1890, p. 3; 19 December 1890, p. 2, Table Talk, Kahler announced he was going to Europe, but a subsequent report indicated his plans to tour Japan, China and India. Later reports indicated that he was in New Zealand and departing for America in late 1890: 28 November, 1890, p. 3; 19 December 1890, p. 2.
63. Table Talk, 18 April 1890, p. 12.
64. Shireen Huda, Pedigree and Panache: a history of the art auction in Australia, Canberra, ANU E Press: Australian National University, 2008, pp. 43-46.
65. Age, 15 February 1890, p. 11; Catalogue of Carl Kahler's Paintings and Antiquities, Thursday February 20, Melbourne: Gemmell, Tucket & Co., 1890.
66. Argus, 8 February 1890, p. 12.
67. Table Talk, 28 February 1890, p. 5; 21 March 1890, p. 7; Catalogue of Herr Kahler's Beautiful Oil Paintings and Pastels, May 7, Melbourne: Gemmell, Tuckett & Co.,1890.
68. Table Talk, 14 March 1890, p. 5.
69. Argus, 7 July 1890, p. 4; Ellen Mitchell, 'Carl Kahler in Melbourne 1885-1890: his patrons, the press and some of his paintings', Baron Von Mueller's German Melbourne, Ellen I. Mitchell, (ed), Plenty Valley Papers, vol. 3, La Trobe University School of Art, 2000, p. 87, p. 93; Mitchell was the first historian to refute that Kahler died in the San Francisco earthquake in 1906. She notes that he exhibited in Philadelphia and with the Society of Independent Artists in New York between 1919 and 1925. Kahler's paintings from his post-Australian years appear intermittently on the American art market.
70. Pamela Niehoff, 'The Pinschofs: patrons of art and music in Melbourne 1883-1920', unpublished MA thesis, The University of Melbourne, 1991, p. 42. I am grateful to Cathy Peters, former curator of the Victoria Racing Club collection, Melbourne, for this information on the Tye family provenance of Kahler's Racing Carnival series.

J. J. Clark: child prodigy architect and his winning but ill-fated design for a Free Public Library in Sydney

1. Brian H. Fletcher, Magnificent Obsession: the story of the Mitchell Library, Sydney. Allen and Unwin, 2007
2. David J. Jones, A Source of Inspiration & Delight: the buildings of the State Library of New South Wales since 1826, Sydney: Library Council of NSW, 1998.
3. This can be viewed on-line at http://nishi.slv.vic.gov.au/latrobejournal/issue/latrobe-20/tl-g-tl.html#nl
4. The probable sources for Clark's map of Liverpool were T. Brown's A New Map of Liverpool, 1850 and James Stonehouse's A New Handbook for the Stranger in Liverpool, 1844.
5. The Treasury's entrance terraces and lanterns were added six years later. They were also designed by Clark.
6. Evidence of J. J. Clark, 'Royal Commission to Enquire into the Public Works Department', (hereafter 'Victorian Royal Commission 1873') Victorian Legislative Assembly, vol. III, Minutes of Evidence, 2 May 1873, question 908, p. 36.
7. See his entry in Australian Dictionary of Biography, Volume 6, 976, pp 13-14. Also available on-line at http://adbonline.anu.edu.au/biogs/A060018b.htm
8. Evidence of Joseph Reed, 'Victorian Royal Commission', 23 April 1873, question 628, p. 23.
9. Ibid, question 904, p. 36.
10. Edmund La Touche Armstrong, The Book of the Public Library, Museums and National Gallery of Victoria, 1856-1906, Melbourne: Trustees of the Public Library, Museums and National Gallery of
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Victoria, 1906, p. 3. A new room was opened on the south side of the Central Hall on 24 May 1859, the anniversary of the birthday of Queen Victoria. It was called "The Queen's Hall' in her honour and the name was soon adopted for the whole of the first floor of the library. See Armstrong, p. 9.
11. J. J. Clark, Application for the position of Colonial Architect, Queensland, 1883, Queensland State Archives, WOR A/219.
12. Presumably Clark added his signature to some of the drawings after the competition.
13. Villa Farnesina was illustrated in Paul Letarouilly's Edificees de Rome Moderne, ou, Recueil des Palais, maisons, eglises, couvents, et autre monuments publics et particuliers les plus remarkables de la ville de Rome, Paris: A. Morel, 1868, plates 101-103.
14. Florence Taylor, Building, vol. 20 no. 118, 'Clark Memorial Number', 12 June 1917, pp. 51-66.
15. G.D. Richardson, The Colony's Quest for a National Library, reprinted from Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Australian Historical Society, vol. 47, Part 2, 1960, p. 8.
16. Sydney Morning Herald, 17 January 1862, p. 3.
17. Votes and proceedings of the Legislative Assembly of NSW, 9 September 1862, p. 433.
18. Votes and proceedings of the Legislative Assembly of NSW, 29 October 1862, p. 557.
19. Sydney Morning Herald, 31 October 1862, pp. 3-4.
20. Ibid.
21. Sydney Morning Herald, 17 December 1862, p. 3.
22. Ibid.
23. Evidence of J. J. Clark, 'Victorian Royal Commission, 1873', questions 960-61, p. 37.
24. 'Minutes of the Trustees of the Public Free Library', 10 February 1873 and 12 May 1873, Mitchell Collection, State Library of New South Wales.

Purveyor of Taste: W. R. Sedon and Melbourne's Sedon Galleries

1. A. Shore, 'Well-known Art Dealer Dies', Age, 21 December 1959, p. 3.
2. P. Leason, 'Current Art Shows. Mr. Arnold Shore at the Athenaeum', Table Talk, 22 August 1929, p. 15.
3. Shore, 'Well-known Art Dealer Dies'.
4. Lionel Lindsay, letter to W. R. Sedon, 2 February 1946, MS 10435, Sedon Gallery Papers, Box 2484, Folder 2484/1, Australian Manuscripts Collection, State Library of Victoria (hereafter Sedon Papers).
5. C. Wade, A Critique of the Pure Art Critic', The Art Student, vol. 1, no. 3, May 1932, p. 15.
6. South Australian Births register 1842-1906, Port Adelaide district, book 221, p. 471.
7. Argus, 21 Feb 1878, p. 1; Bulletin, 29 October 1947, p. 20.
8. Argus, 3 April 1890, p. 10; Argus, 9 May 1890, p. 3.
9. Biographical Data and Photograph of William Richard Sedon, released by International Press Service Association of Australia, compilers and publishers "Who's Who in Australia", nd. See also Who's Who in Australia, Melbourne: The Herald, 1935, p. 982.
10. Biographical Data and Photograph of William Richard Sedon.
11. See note 106.
12. Bulletin, 29 October 1947, p. 20.
13. Alleged Scrip Forgeries', Argus, 11 April 1903, p. 13; 'The Scrip Frauds', Argus, 20 June 1903, p. 15.
14. 'Scrip Forgeries', Argus, 25 June 1903, p. 8.
15. In 1897, the year Thomas Sedon is absent from the trade directories, Collins Street sharebroker W. C. Bury was the victim of a mining scrip fraud to the value of £343/15/-. A similar method of deceit was used in Sydney five years later in August 1902 such that, while no direct evidence was put forward, it was argued that the 'description fitted Sedon "like paper on the wall'". 'Scrip Forgeries', Argus, 25 June 1903, p. 8.
16. 'Prisoners reported as discharged from the penal establishments during the week ending 21st Oct., 1905',
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Victorian Police Gazette, no. 52, 28 December 1905, np.
17. Sands & McDougall Directory of Victoria for 1904, Melbourne: Sands and McDougall, 1904, p. 1343; Victorian Electoral Roll, Division of Yarra, Richmond Central (Church Street), p. 67; Bulletin, 29 October 1947, p. 20.
18. The Australasian Traveller, vol. 2, no. 8, 3 October 1906, p. 37; W. R. Sedon, membership no. 1394, CTA Association Members Register 1905-1910, A.1979.0162, Commercial Travellers Association papers, University of Melbourne Archives.
19. G. Meudell, The Pleasant Career of a Spendthrift, London: Routledge & Sons, 1929, p. 131.
20. This sum excluded additional assets held by Crawford in New South Wales and Western Australia. Argus, 1 May 1919, p. 6.
21. Argus, 5 May 1928, p. 3; P. Kettle, Randolph Lycett, Tennis Player: Britain's finest from 1920-25, Melbourne: Peter Kettle and Associates, 2005, pp. 51-52.
22. Public Record Office of Victoria (hereafter PROV), VPRS 5903/19, microfilm copy of VPRS 397, Rate Books, City of Camberwell, Rate Book 143-146, 1925-26, Centre Ward, No.2, p. 85, no. 19348, Sedon, Isabel Constance. See also Isabel Sedon's probate papers in which W. R. Sedon writes 'That the real and personal property set out in the said Inventory was the separate property of the said deceased at the time of her death, the certificate of title to the said real estate and the moneys in the Bank accounts being in her own name'. PROV, VPRS 28/ P03/ Unit 1888, Probate of Isabel Constance Sedon, Affidavit of Executor.
23. Argus, 5 May 1928, p. 3.
24. Bulletin, 10 July 1929, p. 46.
25. Shore, 'Well-known Art Dealer Dies'. Shore goes on to note that Sedon established himself in Hardware Chambers, Elizabeth Street, 'some time about 1914'. This is either an error or a simple typo. There is nothing to support such an early commencement date, and as late as 1924 – the year before the Sedon Galleries opened– W. R. Sedon's profession is recorded on the Australian electoral rolls as 'traveller', in reference to his continuing employment with the Commercial Traveller's Association. Sedon, W. R., Victorian Electoral Roll, 1924, division of Kooyong, subdivision of Camberwell, p. 117.
26. S. Long, 'The Trend of Australian Art Considered and Discussed', Art and Architecture: the journal of the Institute of Architects of NSW, vol. 2, no. 1, January-February 1905, p. 9.
27. Sir Baldwin Spencer, letter to H. P. Gill, 7 August 1908, in C. Thiele, Heysen of Hahndorf, rev. ed., Diamond Creek, Vic.: David Heysen Productions, 2001, pp. 115-16.
28. Galbally cites the other 'masterpiece' as being Circular Quay. A. Galbally, 'Streeton, Sir Arthur Ernest (1867-1943), Australian Dictionary of Biograpphy. Available on-line at http://adbonline.anu.edu.au/biogs/A120137b.htm.
29. W. Moore, The Story of Australian Art, Sydney: Angus & Robertson, 1934, vol. 2, p. 27.
30. Australian Art. Sir Baldwin Spencer's Collection', Argus, 7 March 1919, p. 6.
31. In 1938, Mrs A. O. Barnett gifted the painting to the Art Gallery of South Australia. George W. Lambert, The holiday group (The bathers), 1907, oil on canvas, 90.7 x 78.7cm, gift of Mrs A. O. Barnett 1938, AGSA, O.990. See also A. Grey, George W. Lambert Retrospective: heroes & icons, Canberra: National Gallery of Australia, 2007, p. 103, cat. 35. Mulvaney and Calaby assert that The Bathers was bought directly from the Spencer sale 'by the S.A. Art Gallery for £183 15s 0d'. See D. J. Mulvaney and J. H. Calaby, 'So much that is new': Baldwin Spencer, 1860-1929: a biography, Carlton, Vic: Melbourne University Press, 1985, notes, chapter 17, fn. 37, p. 465.
32. 'Spencer Art Collection. Streeton Pictures Realises 420 Gns.', Argus, 20 May 1919, p. 6. There is a discrepancy in the article that gives the price realised for The Centre of the Empire as both 420 guineas and £420. A contemporary article a few years after the sale records the price as £420, as does William Moore, writing in 1934, who stated that the painting sold for 400 guineas (£420). The work is the second of two versions of Trafalgar Square, and was exhibited by Streeton at the 1902 Paris Salon. Spencer purchased the painting in Melbourne in April 1907 for £100. The work
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remains in private ownership. The earlier version, now titled Frosty Noon, was gifted to the National Gallery of Victoria by Dr Joseph Brown in 1986. 'Romance of Art Sales', The Sydney Mail, 26 September 1923, p. 8; G. Smith, Arthur Streeton, 1867-1943, Melbourne: National Gallery of Victoria, 1995, p. 140.
33. Argus, 31 May 1919, p. 2.
34. Table Talk, 5 June 1919, p. 31.
35. 'Australian Pictures. Some High Prices', Argus, 21 June 1919, p. 21.
36. Shore, 'Well-known Art Dealer Dies'.
37. 'Sedon Galleries', A. McCulloch, S. McCulloch, E. McCulloch Childs, The New McCulloch's Encyclopedia of Australian Art, Melbourne: Miegunyah Press, 2006, p. 1148.
38. Australian Pictures. Some High Prices', Argus, 17 June 1919, p. 21.
39. J. Clark and B. Whitelaw, Golden Summers, Heidelberg and beyond, Sydney: International Cultural Corporation of Australia, 1985, p. 194; The Dallhold Collection, Christie's, Melbourne, 28 July 1992, lot. 52.
40. Auction of the W. R. Sedon Collection of Australian Paintings, "Ramornie" 49 Mangarra Road, Camberwell [sic], Decoration Company, Monday, 5 December 1960. In 1992, when Feeding Time was sold from the Dallhold Collection, it was noted that for much of the twentieth century, the painting had been held in anonymous private collections, one in Victoria and subsequently in New South Wales, before reappearing with Sotheby's in April 1986. It seems likely that the private collection in Victoria was that of W. R. Sedon. Feeding Time last sold at auction through Christie's in November 1995 for $552,000 (including buyer's premium).
41. 'Sundry Shows', Bulletin, 22 October 1925, p. 36.
42. Sands and McDougall Directory of Victoria for 1925, Melbourne: Sands and McDougall, 1925, p. 31.
43. 90 Years of the Twenty Melbourne Painters Society, Melbourne: Twenty Melbourne Painters Society, 2008, pp. 4-5.
44. For example, see E. Stirling Levis, 'Miniatures: an art that has lived – and still flourishes', Sydney Morning Herald Women's Supplement, 11 July 1935, p. 17. Bernice Edwell had exhibited at both the Paris Salon as well as the Royal Academy, but come to prominence in Australia after winning first prize at the Women's Work Exhibition in Melbourne in 1907. Her miniature works as well as landscapes were exhibited regularly throughout the 1920s, often to good acclaim.
45. R. Butler, Printed: images by Australian artists 1885-1955, Canberra: National Gallery of Australia, 2007, p. 79.
46. Ibid.
47. 1st Annual Xmas Exhibition, The Sedon Galleries, Melbourne, 14-18 December 1925.
48. Argus, 14 December 1925, p. 18.
49. Bulletin, 29 October 1947, p. 20.
50. Minutes of a meeting of the Felton Bequests Committee, 17 December 1926, MSF 12855, Felton Bequests Committee minutes, book 4, 1926-1930, Australian Manuscripts Collection, State Library of Victoria, p. 123.
51. Minutes of a meeting of the Felton Bequests Committee, 28 November 1927, MSF 12855, Felton Bequests Committee minutes, book 4, 1926-1930, Australian Manuscripts Collection, State Library of Victoria, p. 168. The original price of £160/13/- was accepted by the FBC before a reduction was made.
52. Among them, five works by Royal Academian Frank Brangwyn achieved particularly strong prices; two of them alone, Monument at £32/11/- and Black Hill, Winchelsea at £38/17/-, accounted for almost a third of the total sum. Minutes of a conference meeting between the Felton Bequests Committee and National Gallery trustees, 13 June 1928, MSF 12855, Felton Bequests Committee minutes, book 4, 1926-1930, Australian Manuscripts Collection, State Library of Victoria, p. 190.
53. Fourth Annual Christmas Exhibition of Etchings, Woodcuts, Lithographs by Famous Master Etchers, The Sedon Galleries, Melbourne, 21 November – c. 24 December 1928; Minutes of a meeting held
152
by the National Gallery trustees on Tuesday, 18 December 1928, MSF 12855, Trustees of the Public Library, Gallery and Museum minutes, vol. 18, 1927-1934, Australian Manuscripts Collection, State Library of Victoria, pp. 127-28.
54. P. & D. Colnaghi, letter to W. R. Sedon, 16 September 1929, MS 10435, Sedon Papers, Box 2484, Folder 2484/a.
55. S. Miller, 'Guide to the Papers of the Sedon Gallery, Melbourne, in the Archive of the Art Gallery of New South Wales', MS 1995.5, Research Library and Archive, Art Gallery of New South Wales, 1998.
56. 'Sedon Galleries', The New McCulloch's Encyclopedia of Australian Art.
57. 'Campbell, Robert Richmond', The New McCulloch's Encyclopedia of Australian Art, p. 307.
58. Art sales and commissions', Art in Australia, third series, no. 26, December 1928, np.
59. 'Exhibition of Paintings/ Mr. Campbell's Landscapes', Argus, 25 September 1928, p. 8.
60. Ibid,
61. 'Mr. R. Campbell's Paintings', Argus, 26 September 1928, p. 14.
62. 'Campbell, Robert Richmond', The New McCulloch's Encyclopedia of Australian Art.
63. Robert Campbell, letter to W. R. Sedon, 15 August 1952, MS 10435, Sedon Papers, Box 2484, Folder 2484/a.
64. Will Ashton, letter to W. R. Sedon, 23 May 1946, MS 10435, Sedon Papers, Box 2483, Folder 2483/d.
65. Will Ashton, letter to W. R. Sedon, 31 May 1946, MS 10435, Sedon Papers, Box 2483, Folder 2483/d.
66. Will Ashton, letter to W. R. Sedon, 21 April 1944, MS 10435, Sedon Papers, Box 2483, Folder 2483/b.
67. Will Ashton, letter to W. R. Sedon, 20 February 1945, MS 10435, Sedon Gallery Papers, Box 2483, Folder 2483/c.
68. Exhibition of Paintings by Forty Leading Australian and English Artists, The Sedon Galleries, Melbourne, 3-17 April 1946.
69. Exhibition of Paintings by Membres of the Royal Art Society of New South Wales, The Sedon Galleries, Melbourne, 22 November2 December 1949.
70. Will Ashton, letter to W. R. Sedon, 8 April 1945, MS 10435, Sedon Papers, Box 2483, Folder 2483/c.
71. J. MacDonald, 'Melbourne', Art in Australia, Xmas number, third series, number 14, December 1925, np.
72. Argus, 14 January 1928, p. 13.
73. PROV, VPRS 28/ P03/ Unit 1888, Probate of Isabel Constance Sedon, Inventory. Sedon married again in 1939. His second wife was killed in a car accident in 1944.
74. Argus, 20 October 1928, p. 3; Argus, 29 October 1928, p. 2.
75. Argus, 20 October 1928, p. 3;
76. Argus, 29 October 1929, p. 2.
77. Bulletin, 10 July 1929, p. 46.
78. This work is not listed as still being held by Sedon at the time of the auction sale of his private collection in December 1960, by which time his collecting tastes are sharply focussed exclusively on Australian art.
79. Bulletin, 10 July 1929, p. 46.
80. Exhibition of Etchings by Rembrandt, exhibition invitation, The Sedon Galleries, Melbourne, 30 July10 August 1929.
81. 'Show of Etchings. Notable European Plates. Work of Brangwyn and Walcot', Argus, 26 November 1929, p. 9.
82. 'Leading Art Collector Dies', Age, 17 November 1956, p. 5.
83. M. Lyons and J. Arnold (eds), A History of the Book in Australia, 1891-1945: A National Culture in a Colonised Market, St Lucia, QLD: University of Queensland Press, pp. 133-34.
84. H. Herbert, Art. Exhibition at the Sedon Galleries', Australasian, 6 September 1930, p. 15; 'Paintings and Etchings At the Sedon Gallery', Age, 2 September 1930, p. 7. Artists included W. B. McInnes,
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exhibiting 'for the first time for many years', Penleigh Boyd, Harold Herbert, John Longstaff, Louis Buvelot, Will Ashton, Napier Waller, Elioth Gruner, Fred McCubbin, Norman Lindsay, whose etchings were 'highly skilled productions, which should interest print collectors', and National Gallery of Victoria Director Bernard Hall.
85. Probably the same as The Gardener's Workshop exhibited in August at an exhibition of Hall's work held at the Athenaeum in Melbourne. It was last sold on the private market through Christie's in November 2005.
86. L. Bernard Hall, letter to W. R. Sedon, 15 September 1930, PA 01/134, Sedon Papers, Box 2492, Folder: Sedon, W. R. – Incoming correspondence 1930s-1960s.
87. 'Party at Ramornie. Farewell to Mr. and Mrs. Bernard Hall', Argus, 12 February 1934, p. 13.
88. 'Farewell Party. Dance at Ramornie', Sun News-Pictorial, 12 February 1934, p. 30.
89. 'Masters of Etching', Age, 2 December 1930, p. 10.
90. Exhibition of Oils & Water-Colors by the Master Painters of the '90s, The Sedon Galleries, Melbourne, 22 September-3 October 1931. Despite the listing of two works by Roberts in the catalogue, his death in September 1931 prevented the works being received in time for the exhibition. It is also noteworthy that no works by Arthur Streeton were included in the exhibition, though several later exhibitions prominently promoted his works.
91. See, for example, Exhibition of Watercolours by Arthur Streeton, The Sedon Galleries, Melbourne, 28 September-8 October 1948; Exhibition of Paintings by Frederick McCubbin, The Sedon Galleries, Melbourne, 2-12 August 1949; Oil Paintings by the Late Sir Arthur Streeton, The Sedon Galleries, 6-16 September 1949 and Exhibition of Works by Sir Arthur Streeton, The Sedon Galleries, Melbourne, 10-[?] May 1955.
92. Exhibition of Oils by the Late Fred McCubbin, The Sedon Galleries, Melbourne, 9-19 September 1941.
93. Keith Murdoch, letter to James S. MacDonald, 10 September 1941, Keith Murdoch Papers, MS 2823, Box 8, Series 5, Folder 1, National Library of Australia.
94. Minutes of a conference meeting between the Felton Bequests Committee and National Gallery trustees held on 13 October 1941, PA 96/83, Minute Book 7, Australian Manuscripts Collection, State Library of Victoria, pp. 118-119. See also PROV, VPRS 805/ P04/ Unit 5, File: 1/13 'McCubbin, works by recommended'.
95. A. M. E. Bale, typed notes with handwritten annotations re: Dobell case, 22 March 1945, MS 10435, Sedon Papers, Box 2483, Folder 2483/f.
96. 'Re: Miss Edwards & Mr. Wolinski', typed notes on Sedon Galleries letterhead, undated, c. 1945, MS 10435, Sedon Papers, Box 2483, Folder 2483/f.
97. A. M .E. Bale, letter to W. R. Sedon, 12 September 1945, MS 10435, Sedon Papers, Box 2483, Folder 2483/f. Australian Manuscripts Collection, State Library of Victoria.
98. Robert Campbell, letter to W. R. Sedon, 23 May 1944, MS 10435, Sedon Papers, Box 2484, Folder 2484/a.
99. Rubery Bennett, letter to Evelyn Baxter, 26 May 1949, MS 10435, Sedon Papers, Box 2483, Folder 2483/g.
100. Arnold Shore at current art shows', Argus, 13 October 1953, p. 9.
101. 'News of the day. Versatile', Age, 6 November 1956, p. 2.
102. Lionel Lindsay, letter to Daryl Lindsay, 4 January 1940, MS 9242, Lindsay Family Papers, Box 2003, Folder 9242/1240-1321, Australian Manuscripts Collection, State Library of Victoria.
103. Daryl Lindsay, letter to Lionel Lindsay, 16 May 1952, MS 9242, Lindsay Family Papers, Box 2003, Folder 9242/594-663, Australian Manuscripts Collection, State Library of Victoria.
104. A. McCulloch, 'Three New Art Shows', Argus, 28 November 1945, p. 7.
105. Oliver Streeton, letter to W. R. Sedon, 11 June 1955, MS 10435, Sedon Papers, Box 2486, Folder 2486/k; A. McCulloch, Art Review. Contemporary art displayed', Herald, 11 May 1955, p. 21.
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106. Lawrence Clifton Thompson, later Sedon-Thompson, was widely regarded by artists, journalists and contemporary gallery owners to be W. R. Sedon's nephew. However, recent research has been unable to confirm the family connection, with W. R. Sedon seemingly an only child. According to his military records, Lawrence Clifton was born in Sydney on the 14 December 1905 to P. A. and Matilda Adelaide Thompson. His profession was recorded as a commercial traveller. By the time he enlisted in 1942, his permanent address was given as 49 Mangarra Road, Canterbury, with W. R. Sedon. According to Will Ashton, 'Cliff' Sedon-Thompson joined the Sedon Galleries as a partner sometime in late 1944/early 1945. He married in 1948 although this marriage seems to have been short-lived and he remarried in the early 1950s. He presented the Galleries' papers to the State Library of Victoria in 1978 ('Select List of Accessions to the Australian Manuscripts Collection, 1978', La Trobe Library Journal, vol. 6, no. 23, April 1979, p. 63) before being admitted to Willsmere Hospital, Kew, in late 1984 where he died in March 1986 (PROV, VPRS 28/ P16/ Unit 182, Probate files of Lawrence Clifton Sedon-Thompson).
107. Hilda Rix Nicholas, letter to an anonymous recipient, April 1947, MS 9817, Hilda Rix Nicholas Papers, Series 7, General Correspondence 1908-1961, Folder 44, Correspondence, 1946-47, Re: exhibition at the Sedon Gallery, Melbourne, National Library of Australia.
108. Exhibition of Paintings at the Camberwell Grammar School Hall, The Sedon Galleries, Melbourne, 29 August-11 September 1959; 'News of the day. Moving', Age, 13 August 1959, p. 2.
109. Art expert dies; 84', Herald, 19 December 1959, p. 3; 'Leading Art Dealer Dies', Sun, 21 December 1959, p. 14; A. Shore, 'Well-known Art Dealer Dies'.
110. PROV, VPRS 7591/ P03/ Unit 334, Will and Testament of William Richard Sedon, 18 December 1957.
111. 'Leading Art Dealer Dies', Sun, 21 December, 1959, p. 14.
112. A. Shore, 'Well-known Art Dealer Dies'.
113. Ibid.

Rebuilding the Future: the Universal Science Group in Post-War Melbourne

1. Universal Science Group, Records 1940-1953, MS 13597, Australian Manuscripts Collection, State Library of Victoria (hereinafter cited as 'Records'). See SLV News, no. 41, July-October, 2009, pp. 8-9, for the original announcement of the acquisition.
2. The 'Dr' that his followers frequently used when referring to MacDonald-Bayne appears to have been honorary, a mark of respect, rather than any officially bestowed title. MacDonald-Bayne did begin a university medical degree but never completed it. At least one of his biographers, however, claims that MacDonald-Bayne held both a Ph.D. and a D.D. No confirmation of these awards currently exists. See note 4, below.
3. Records, Box 13, Group 9, Address by MacDonald-Bayne, 14 July 1947, Johannesburg.
4. Biographical sketch by Paul Troxler of Pretoria, South Africa, a student of MacDonald-Bayne. The biography is available at http://www.scribd.com/doc/13885798. Most of what we know about MacDonald-Bayne comes from his students and some interesting and unverifiable claims are often made about his life and his psychic powers, all of which are best treated with a certain amount of scholarly reserve. There is also a brief biographical article on MacDonald-Bayne on Wikipedia: http://www.thefuUwiki.org/Murdo_MacDonald-Bayne.
5. See, for example, his Spiritual and Mental Healing, London: L. N. Fowler, 1947. This is a published lecture series from material originally delivered in Johannesburg during 1945. The book went through four impressions between 1947 and 1964, its practical and down-to-earth advice proving to be very popular.
6. Sydney Morning Herald, 24 June, p. 1 and 25 June, 1931, p. 7, where MacDonald-Bayne advertised a series of lectures which promised a method of ensuring health, success and happiness. These lectures ran from 29 June to 3 July, and were typical of the sorts of topics he covered in Sydney and elsewhere.
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7. Psychic News (UK), 13 August 1932. The fact that Bailey, as a medium, was reputedly caught out in fraudulent practices on a number of occasions does not seem to have diminished MacDonald-Bayne's support for him. They claimed that spirit voices spoke through Bailey, and that his apports were the most startling and cogent proof of his mediumistic powers. The two of them collaborated in the use of the so-called 'chastaphone', a small box-like device which, it was claimed, reduced the higher vibrations of the spirit universe to a level where they could be heard by mortal man. This was something of a forerunner to Wilhelm Reich's 'orgone accumulator', first built in 1940, except that Reich was trying to concentrate 'orgone', a sort of primordial cosmic energy which had both a physical and a spiritual aspect. It was later largely discredited after a famous experiment by Albert Einstein.
8. See his Beyond the Himalayas, London: L. N. Fowler, 1954, and The Yoga of the Christ, London: L. N. Fowler, [1955?]. A glance at these two texts will probably leave the normal Western reader agape at some of his claims. The style and content of these books are probably earnest and sincere as far as they go, but read like some fantastic travelogue which plays on the supposedly mysterious and mystical realm of Tibet, both physical and spiritual, which few Westerners had penetrated at that time, leaving many of his descriptions and claims regarding mystical practices unable to be independently verified.
9. Age (Melbourne), 29 March 1941, p. 4. His advertisement offers to show the reader 'the real lost horizon', in obvious reference to James Hilton's novel, The Lost Horizon (1933) or more likely, the 1937 film version, best remembered as the origin of 'Shangri La', a fictional monastery in the mountain recesses of Tibet.
10. One example is the internet site run by Lora Mendel out of Canada. She is apparently the current copyright holder for many of MacDonald-Bayne's books and lectures, some of which she has republished on line. See http://www.macdonaldbaynehomestead.com. There is a New Zealand website dedicated to his writings and Mystica Publications Ltd, also based in New Zealand, has republished most if not all of MacDonald-Bayne's books plus issued CDs of his recorded lectures.
11. Troxler, op. cit. (note 4, above)
12. Joy Hall and her son Rex Roadknight were amongst the staunchest of MacDonald-Bayne's supporters, and two of the mainstays of the USG. Joyce Lesley Hall (nee Watkin) was born in 1900 and died in 1965. Her first marriage was to Leslie Alfred Roadknight in 1920, and they had two children, Rex Roadknight and Stephanie Roadknight (who died young). At the time of Rex's birth, they were living at Korumburra, Victoria. Her second marriage was to Hugh Perceval Hall in 1934, with issue Felicitie Elizabeth. After her second marriage and throughout the time when the USG operated, Joy and her husband Hugh Hall lived at 1 St George's Road Elsternwick, which was often used for USG meetings. See Victoria, Deaths Register, entry no. 27251/65. Rex Alfred Louis Roadknight, the son from Joy's first marriage, was born in 1921 and died relatively young, aged 46 in 1967 of heart failure. His occupation at the time of his death is recorded as 'Not any'. He resided at Williams Road, Olinda, Victoria, and remained unmarried throughout his life and died without issue. See Victoria, Deaths Register, entry no. 7816/67. (Note that, on this register entry, his mother's maiden name is wrongly recorded as Hall, which was in fact her name at the time of her second marriage.) Felicitie Hall, Joy and Hugh's daughter, was consulted for background material at the time when the USG Records were acquired by SLV, but was not available for consultation during the writing of this article.
13. Records, Box 13, Group 9, Committee Meetings Minute Book, pp. 2 and 4. Cf. a document headed 'Ideas on the future Work of the "New Life Group" Melbourne', dated November 1945, by H. Hershberg, which gives some background as to why the group might have adopted a minimal constitution and reduced organisational structure (Records, Box 5, Group 6).
14. Records, Box 13, Group 9, Committee Meetings Minute Book, pp. 106 and 107.
15. Records, Box 13, Group 8, Committee Meetings Minute Book, loose leaf, tipped in. There is some evidence that the hoped-for increase in community interest and boosted membership had not
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immediately taken place. See Records, Box 13, Group 8, Committee Meetings Minute Book, p. 98. There is also evidence that this was something of a membership 'culling' of non-participants and non-attenders. See Records, Box 13, Group 9.
16. Records, Box 13, Group 9, Council Meetings, 1947-52, Minutes for 26 January 1949 and Addendum, 'Paper to be read by Mrs [Joy] Hall'. This was the occasion on which the new arrangement was formally instituted and the old committee structure abandoned. One reason for this change of structure may have been to limit attendances at meetings, especially insofar as the group now saw themselves as part of a world-wide movement among MacDonald-Bayne's followers to set up local chapters of his 'Sanctuary of the Silent Healing Power'. It was probably felt that a small, dedicated group of committed devotees would muster more healing force than a more diverse and amorphous group.
17. Murdo MacDonald-Bayne, Spiritual and Mental Healing, London: L. N. Fowler and Co., 1947, pp. 9-10.
18. Records, Box 13, Group 7, Explanatory handbill for distribution, Official Healing Register.
19. Ibid. Handwritten notes accompanying the Official Healing Register.
20. Ibid. Explanatory handbill for distribution, Official Healing Register.
21. Murdo MacDonald-Bayne, The Higher Power You Can Use, Rpt, London: L. N. Fowler, 1964, p. 100.
22. See, for example, Murdo MacDonald-Bayne, Spiritual and Mental Healing, London: L. N. Fowler, 1947, p. 234. MacDonald-Bayne often develops his ideas in unexpected directions and often applies them to seemingly ludicrous extremes. This is so in relation to the idea of 'The Natural Law' when he claims that the Law is not fulfilled by the majority of people when they eat, and that they therefore eat in an unnatural way, because they 'take one or two chews and then swallow' without sufficient mastication (p. 15).
23. Records, Box 1, Group 20.
24. Records, Box 2, Group 8, Memo Book, p. [5]. This may have been written by Rex Roadknight.
25. See Murdo MacDonald-Bayne, Spiritual and Mental Healing, London: L. N. Fowler, 1947, p. 17.
26. Murdo MacDonald-Bayne, How to Relax and Revitalise Yourself, London: L. N. Fowler, 1952, p. 65.
27. Rex Roadknight, short article or note headed 'Aesthetics', Records, Box 5, Group 6. Cf. Manuscript notebook (probably in Rex Roadknight's hand), p. 1, headed 'Music is the highest form of occultism', found in Box 8, Group 7.
28. Records, Box 6, Group 23, Memo book, p. 3. The presenters were members Jessie Lureis, Phyllis Twining and Joy Hall.
29. Records, Box 2, Group 20, Memo book, p.1. Cf. Records, Box 7, Group 9.

'It gives me much pleasure, dear Sir Redmond': the State Library of Victoria's copy of Aroideae Maximilianae

1. Walter Benjamin, Illuminations, ed. by Hannah Arendt; translated by Harry Zohn, New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, 1968, p. 63.
2. Franz Joseph I (1830-1916), Emperor of Austria, King of Hungary.
3. Baron Sir Ferdinand von Mueller (1825-96), botanist and Australia's leading scientist of the nineteenth century'. See Regardfully Yours: selected correspondence of Ferdinand von Mueller, vol. III: 1876-1896, ed. by R.W. Home [et al.], Bern: Peter Lang, 2006, p. 40. Rod Home and Sara Maroske kindly shared with me their vast knowledge of Ferdinand von Mueller and directed me to relevant correspondence.
4. The title page has two inscriptions (in different hands): 'Presented by Baron Ferd. von Mueller, April 19th 1880' and 'Entd. Stock Book, p. 265, May 1880'.
5. Now the State Library of Victoria.
6. Harald Riedl, 'Hermann Wilhelm Schott (1794-1865)', Taxon, vol. 14, no. 7, Sept. 1965, p. 209.
7. Aroideae Maximilianae. The Araceae collected on His Majesty, the Emperor Maximilian I's
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expedition to Brazil, described by Dr. J. Peyritsch from drawings by H. Schott. With a frontispiece and 42 colour plates. Vienna: Carl Gerold's Son, 1879.
8. Sir Redmond Barry (1813-80), judge, and President of the Trustees of the Public Library and prominent in all aspects of cultural, civic and philanthropic activity in Melbourne from the time he arrived in the colony in 1839 until his death some forty years later. See Ann Galbally, Redmond Barry: an Anglo-Irish Australian, Carlton, Victoria: Melbourne University Press, 1995.
9. Ferd. von Mueller to His Honor Sir Redmond Barry K.C.M.G., L.L.D., President of the Trustees of the Public Library, 17 April 1880 (transcription provided by the Mueller Correspondence Project, Royal Botanic Gardens, Melbourne).
10. Ferdinand Maximilian was Franz Joseph I's younger brother; in 1857 he married Maria (Marie) Charlotte (1840-1927), daughter of the Belgian monarch, Leopold I.
11. Much has been written on Maximilian and the Mexican disaster. A wealth of insights can be found in studies of the French painter, Edouard Manet (1832-83) and his works on Maximilian's execution (three large paintings, an oil sketch and a lithograph); see, for example, John Elderfield, Manet and the Execution of Maximilian, New York: Museum of Modern Art, 2006.
12. Richard Bentley's introduction to Maximilian I, Emperor of Mexico, Recollections of My Life, vol. 1, London: Richard Bentley, 1868, p. iii.
13. On the southern tip of the Istria peninsular. In the nineteenth century, Pula (then Pola) became the Austrian Empire's key naval base. It is now part of Croatia.
14. Recollections of My Life, vol. 2, 1868, p. 283.
15. Recollections of My Life, vol. 3, 1868, p. 97.
16. Heinrich Wawra Ritter von Fernsee (1831-87), physician in the Austrian Navy and botanist.
17. Franz Maly (1823-91), gardener and botanist.
18. Joseph Selleny (1824-75), landscape painter and lithographer.
19. Recollections of My Life, vol. 3, 1868, p. 388.
20. See John Fletcher,'Karl Scherzer and the Visit of the "Novara" to Sydney, 1858', Journal of the Royal Australian Historical Society, vol. 71, pt. 3, Dec. 1985, pp. 189-190; John Fletcher, 'The "Novara" in Sydney, November-December 1858: On unlocking a Time-Warp', Australian Library History in Context, ed. by W. Boyd Rayward, Kensington, NSW: School of Librarianship, University of NSW, 1988, pp. 8-9; John Fletcher, 'Joseph Selleny (1824-1875)', The Dictionary of Australian Artists: Painters, Sketchers, Photographers and Engravers to 1870, ed. by Joan Kerr, Melbourne: Oxford University Press, 1992, pp. 712-714 (also available on-line at http://www.daao.org.au/main/read/5659); and Michael Organ, '"Osterreich in Australien": Ferdinand von Hochstetter and the Austrian Novara Scientific Expedition, 1858-9', Historical Records of Australian Science, vol. 12, no. 1, June 1998, p. 1.
21. Douglas Botting, Humboldt and the Cosmos, London: Michael Joseph, 1973, p. 260.
22. Ernst Wunschmann, 'Heinrich Wawra Ritter von Fernsee', Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, vol. 41, 1896, pp. 272-276.
23. Richard Blaine McCornack, 'Maximilian's Relations with Brazil', The Hispanic American Historical Review, vol. 32, no. 2, May 1952, p. 175.
24. Heinrich Wawra Ritter von Fernsee, Botanische Ergebnisse der Reise Seiner Majestät des Kaisers von Mexico Maximilian I nach Brasilien (1859-60), 2 vols, Vienna: Ceroid, 1866.
25. Johann Josef Peyritsch (1835-89), botanist and physician.
26. Ferd. von Mueller to Sir Redmond Barry, 17 April 1880, op. cit. In this letter Mueller mentioned also – 'in all due modesty' – that he had been among those to whom Schott had dedicated this 'celebrated' work (Schott's dedication had listed 24 distinguished botanists).
27. Harald Riedl, op. cit., p. 210.
28. For an outline of this war, see Geoffrey Wawro, The Austro-Prussian War: Austria's war with Prussia and Italy in 1866, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996.
29. Theodor Kotschy (1813-66), botanist and explorer.
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30. Siegfried Reissek (1819-71), botanist.
31. Anton Hartinger (1806-90), painter and pioneer in chromolithography.
32. A firm founded and run by Gottlieb Benjamin Reiffenstein (1822-85), painter and lithographer.
33. Eduard Fenzl (1808-79), botanist.
34. August von Jilek (1819-98), physician and lecturer in oceanography at the Austrian Marine Academy in Pola (now Pula, Croatia).
35. Heinrich Gustav Adolf Engler (1844-1930), botanist.
36. Josef Bogner, 'History of Araceae', Aroideana, vol. 20, 1997, p. 41. On the previous page, Bogner had written: 'Modern systematic studies of the Araceae began with the work of the Austrian botanist and gardener Heinrich Wilhelm Schott'.

Front cover of An artist's sanctuary: catalogue raisonne of the contents of Herr Kahler's studio . . . to be sold by auction by Messrs. Gemmell, Tuckett, and Co. . . . on Thursday, 20th February, 1890, Melbourne: McCarron, Bird & Co., 1890. Rare Books Collection.

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Notes on Contributors

Wayne Caldow is a Research Associate in the School of Geography and Environmental Science at Monash University. He was the 2008-09 La Trobe Society Creative Fellow.
Andrew Dodd is a Senior Lecturer at Swinburne University. After finishing his PhD thesis on J. J. Clark, he was awarded the 2009 Redmond Barry Fellowship by the State Library of Victoria and Melbourne University to complete a book on Clark's life and work which will be published by the UNSW Press in 2011.
Chris Elmore is a Melbourne-based writer and researcher with an interest in historical, bibliographical and literary studies. He is currently researching a William Hazlitt document held in State Library of Victoria and aspects of Spiritualism in Melbourne during the years after the Great War.
Laurie Hergenhan, AO, is Emeritus Professor of Australian literature at the University of Queensland. As well as editing Australian Literary Studies (1963-2001), he was general editor of over thirty volumes in the Australian Authors series (UQP, 1976-2003). He has written widely on nineteenth and twentieth century Australian literature, co-edited Xavier Herbert: letters (St Lucia: UQP, 2002) and edited The Australian Short Story anthology (first published 1986).
Gareth Knapman is a Curator in the Indigenous Cultures Department at Museum Victoria. He completed his PhD at RMIT University's Globalism Institute, focusing on the role of the savage and the barbarian in nineteenth-century ideas of ethnicity within the British Empire. He has published articles on colonialism and liberalism within British Empire and in 2008 he was awarded Museum Victoria's Thomas Ramsay Science and Humanities Fellowship, and is currently an adjunct Fellow with the Centre for Australian Indigenous Studies at Monash University.
Vane Lindesay is a leading black-and-white artist, cartoonist and bookman, whose books include The Inked-in Image: a social and historical study of Australian comic art (1979). A long-time supporter of the State Library, a portion of his memories, A Bookman Recollects', was published in the Autumn 2002 (no. 79) issue of the La Trobe Journal. He has recently published a memorial volume to WEG that includes numerous examples of the cartoonist's work.
Andrew Montana is a Senior Lecturer in art and design history at the Australian National University, and co-ordinator of the Art History and Curatorship internship program. The author of a major book and many articles on art, design and ornament, his research interests include the transmission of aesthetics and ideas in the visual arts of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries across Britain and Australia.
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Dave Phoenix is the President of the Burke and Wills Historical Society. He first became interested in the Burke and Wills Expedition while living at the remote outback town of Innamincka which is close to the 'Dig Tree' where much of the drama occurred in 1861. He is a postgraduate researcher at James Cook University writing a PhD and in 2008 as part of his research, he walked 3,750 kilometres across Australia from Melbourne to the Gulf of Carpentaria following the faded footsteps of Burke and Wills.
Walter Struve is a reference librarian at the State Library of Victoria. Some years ago he became intrigued by the man behind the Library's 'Kurt Offenburg Memorial Collection' and is now attempting a biography of him.
Benjamin Thomas is the Rusden Curator of Art, Trinity College, and the Assistant Curator, Public Life & Institutions, with Museum Victoria. He was awarded his PhD from the University of Melbourne in 2009 for his study of the Australian artist, art administrator and director of the National Gallery of Victoria (1942-55), Sir Daryl Lindsay. His research into early twentieth century Melbourne art markets was undertaken as the 2009-10 Dr Joseph Brown, AO, Fellow at the State Library of Victoria.

Drawing by WEG of a future editor of the La Trobe Journal, c.1960. Collection of John Arnold.

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was established in 1994 to raise funds to support the State Library of Victoria. It encourages and promotes private philanthropy and corporate sponsorship for State Library projects, including preservation of Victoria's cultural heritage, conservation of valuable collections, acquisitions of items of historical significance, and delivery of educational programs and research services to the community.
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This issue features articles on the Burke and Wills Expedition; the early cattle trade between Victoria and Van Diemen's Land; the lost bust of George Augustus Robinson; researching and writing on Marcus Clarke; the child prodigy architect J. J. Clark; the Melbourne Cup paintings of Carl Kahler; an influential Melbourne art gallery run by W. R. Sedon; the activities of the Universal Science Group in post-World War II Melbourne; an important natural history plate book presented to the State Library of Victoria by Baron Ferdinand von Mueller; and a short biography of William Ellis Green, better known as the cartoonist WEG.