State Library of Victoria > La Trobe Journal

No 84 December 2009

[Back matter]



ADB = Australian Dictionary of Biography available on-line at:

Early Australian Christmas Cards

1 Details on Cole and the first Christmas card from The History of the Christmas Card, London: Spring Books, 1965, p. 6, and
2 For Helena Forde (1832–1910) see
3 For Edwin Roper (1832–1909) see
4 Circular quoted in Sydney Morning Herald, 23 May 1881, p. 5.
5 Marjorie Graham, The Australian Antique Collector, 23rd edition, 1982, p. 64.
6 Ernest Blake (1859–1938) was, according to Leigh R. Hammerton's Ashens People: a history of the Murtoa and district (1997), the post-master at Murtoa from 1882–1887.

Becoming ‘Correa’

1 First published in Melbourne 1939, it was reissued by the Five Mile Press in 1985.
2 Betty Conabere to Esther Wettenhall, 14 February 1990, author's collection. The ‘glove box bibles’ that Galbraith wrote were Wildflowers of Victoria, Melbourne: Colorgravure Publications, 1950, and Field Guide to Wild Flowers of South East Australia, Sydney: Collins, 1977.
3 Garden Lover/Australian Garden Lover: a monthly journal devoted to Australian horticulture, February 1926 – October 1935. First published in April 1925, ‘Australian’ was added to its title in April 1926.
4 See Mark Tredinnick, Place on Earth: an anthology of nature writing from Australia and North America, Sydney: University of New South Wales Press, 2003; also see Mark Tredinnick, The Land's Wild Music: encounters with Barry Lopez, Peter Mathiessen, Terry Tempest Williams and James Galvin, San Antonio, Texas: Trinity University Press, 2005.
5 See Meredith Fletcher, ‘“Exotic” Natives: Field Naturalists’ Club of Victoria Wildflower Shows’, Victorian Historical Journal, May 2008, pp 93–106; ‘Exhibition of Wild-Flowers’, Victorian Naturalist, November, 1925; John Nicholls, ‘Two Gippsland Naturalists’, Gippsland Heritage Journal, no 1, 1986, pp. 33–37.
6 Ralph Boardman to Jean Galbraith, 10 December 1925, box 3463/8, Jean Galbraith Papers, MS 12637, Australian Manuscripts Collection, State Library of Victoria. All box numbers cited hereafter are in the Jean Galbraith Papers.
7 Ralph Boardman to Jean Galbraith, 31 December 1925, box 3461/1.
8 Jean had copies of Macdonald's Gum Bough and Wattle Bloom and Barrett's In Australian Wilds when she was fourteen. Her books are held in the Ian Hyndman Collection, Beechworth.
9 See, for example, Mary Milner, The Garden, the Grove and the Field and T. Carreras, A Year in the Woodlands, both given to Jean for her thirteenth birthday, Ian Hyndman Collection, Beechworth.
10 Nature Study Notes, 1920, box 3473/3; Gene Stratton-Porter, Music of the Wild: with reproductions of performers, their instruments and festival halls, London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1910.
11 Charles Barrett to Jean Galbraith, 18 August 1923; 17 February 1927, box 3461/1.
12 Jean Galbraith to John Lothian, 1 July 1927, box 3462/2.
13 Jean Galbraith, ‘Notes on Plants 1919’, box 3473/2.
14 Jean Galbraith to John Lothian, 9 April 1928, box 3462/3.
15 Leader, 21 August 1917.
16 Leader, 13 October 1917.
17 ‘Australian Native Flowers’, Garden Lover, February 1926, p. 581.
18 See May Gibbs, Snugglepot and Cuddlepie, Sydney: Angus and Robertson, 1918; also Peter Bernhardt, Wily Violets and Underground Orchids: the revelations of a botanist, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003, pp. 15–28.
19 ‘In a Fold of Hills’, Australian Garden Lover, January 1927, p. 394.
20 ‘In a Fold of Hills’, p. 395.
21 ‘As the Days of a Tree’, Australian Garden Lover, January 1928, p. 380.
22 ‘The Singing Trees’, Australian Garden Lover, May 1928, pp. 67–8.
23 These two parks have now been combined to form the Tarra Bulga National Park.
24 See readers’ letters in the Australian Garden Lover.
25 Mark Tredinnick, Place on Earth, pp. 31–39.
26 Tom Griffiths, Hunters and Collectors: the antiquarian imagination in Australia, Melbourne: Cambridge University Press, 1996, pp. 136–141.
27 Jean Galbraith to John Lothian, 24 May 1931; 25 June 1928, box 3462/3.
28 ‘From Day to Day in the Garden’, Australian Garden Lover, August 1970.
29 Donald Macdonald to Jean Galbraith, 26 January 1932, box 3463/1.
30 See Libby Robin, ‘Nationalising Nature: Wattle Days in Australia’, Journal of Australian Studies, vol. 73, 2002, pp. 13–26.
31 See ‘Wattle’, Australian Garden Lover, July 1926, pp 148–150.
32 Australian Garden Lover, January 1926, p. 338.
33 See T. C. Wollaston, Our Wattles, Melbourne: Lothian Publishing Company, 1916, pp. 12–13, p. 18.
34 See for example Jean Galbraith, Garden in a Valley, Melbourne: Five Mile Press, 1985, pp. 8–13. See also Ian Hyndman, Andrew and Sarah Galbraith and Family: pioneers of Beechworth and Tyers, Beechworth, Vic.: Bethel Publications, 1997, pp. 43–53.
35 See Katie Holmes, Susan K. Martin and Kylie Mirmohamadi's summary of this literature in Reading the Garden: the settlement of Australia, Carlton, Vic.: Melbourne University Press, 2008, pp. 26–29.
36 ‘A Garden of Memories’, Australian Garden Lover, February 1927, p. 434.
37 Jean Galbraith to John Lothian, 27 November 1931, box 3462/3.
38 ‘The River's Tragedy’, Australian Garden Lover, July 1935, pp. 41–2.
39 ‘A Wider Path’ Australian Garden Lover, October 1935, p. 23.
40 ‘From Day to Day in the Garden’, Australian Garden Lover, December 1965.

The Mere Fancy Sketches of Ned Kelly

1 T. McIntyre, ‘A True Narrative of the Kelly Gang’. Unpublished manuscript, written in 1902, MS PA BOX 66, State Library of Victoria.
2 T. Carrington & I. Jones, Ned Kelly: the last stand. Melbourne, Port Melbourne, Vic: Lothian, 2003 p. 20.
3 ‘The Police Murders’, Argus, 30 October, 1878, p. 5
4 A Castles, Ned Kelly's Last Days, Crows Nest, NSW: Allen & Unwin, 2005, p. 168.
5 Prisoners were allowed to grow facial hair during the last three months of their prison term. See K. McMenomy, Ned Kelly: the authentic illustrated history. Melbourne: Hardie Grant Publishing, 2001, p. 49.
6 A. Davies & P. Stanbury, The Mechanical Eye in Australia: photography 1841–1900, Melbourne: Oxford University Press, 1985, p. 201.
7 Dan's studio portrait also appeared as a wood engraving in the Illustrated Australian News, 28 November 1878, p. 196.
8 Argus, 30 October 1878, p. 6.
9 E. Hartrick, Consuming Illustrations: the magic lantern in Australia and Aotearoa/New Zealand 1850–1910, Carlton, Vic: The Australian Centre, The University of Melbourne, 2003, p. 241.
10 The warrant had been issued by the Chiltern Bench in March 1878. Both Dan Kelly and John Lloyd Jr were said to have been involved.
11 The original copy of the ‘Jerilderie Letter’ is on display at the State Library of Victoria. It has also been digitized and can be read on-line at
12 J. Corfield, The Ned Kelly Encyclopaedia., Port Melbourne, Vic: Lothian, 2003, p. 394.
13 Royal Commission on the Police Force of Victoria, 1881, Melbourne: Heinemann, 1968 p. 143.
14 T. Carrington, & I. Jones, Ned Kelly: the last stand, p. 19.
15 Ian Jones, Ned Kelly: a short life, Port Melbourne: Lothian Books, Photo Insert.
16 Leigh Astbury, City Bushmen: the Heidelberg School and the rural mythology, South Melbourne, Vic.: Oxford University Press, 1985, p. 50.
17 Ibid, p. 128.
18 A. Nixon, Stand and Deliver!: 100 Australian bushrangers 1789–1901, Port Melbourne, Vic.: Lothian, 1991, p. 130.
19 Jack Cato, The Story of the Camera in Australia, first published in 1954, reprinted, Hong Kong: IAP, 1979, p. 33.
20 Ian Jones, Ned Kelly, Photo Insert.

An Irish Radical and his Nephew

1 MS 13698. Sir William Hill Irvine, Papers (1811–1950), Australian Manuscripts Collection, State Library of Victoria (SLV). The author would like to thank Mr Andrew Irvine Morrison for this generous gift, and Shirley Goldsworthy for facilitating the deposit with the State Library. J. M. Bennett, Ann G. Smith, ‘Irvine, Sir William Hill (1858 – 1943)’, ADB.
2 J. M Bennett, ‘Notes on the Life of Sir William Hill Irvine: Chief Justice and Politician’, Victorian Historical Journal, vol. 48, No. 4 (1977), p. 297.
3 ‘Irvine, Sir William Hill’, ADB.
4 Bennett, ‘Notes’, p. 301.
5 Irvine resigned on the advice of his doctors; for further details see Bennett, ‘Notes’, p. 299. This strike-breaking action was noted in the conferring speech at Trinity College Dublin when Irvine received his Honorary Doctor of Laws (LLD), see Argus, 12 August 1904, p. 8.
6 MS 1736, Papers of Alfred Deakin, National Library of Australia (NLA), and, MS 1540. Papers of Josiah Symon, NLA.
7 Bennett, ‘Notes’, p. 308.
8 William Irvine married Agnes Sommerville Wanliss at St Andrew's Presbyterian Church at Ballarat in 1891.
9 The papers of T. D. Wanliss and his family can be found at the State Library of Victoria, Australian Manuscripts Collection, MS 9903. See also Kathleen Thomson and Geoffrey Serle, Biographical Register of the Victorian Parliament, 1851–1901, Canberra: Australian National University Press, 1972, p. 219.
10 Rev. John Mitchel, The Scripture Doctrine of the Divinity of Our Lord Jesus Christ, and Other Subjects Connected Therewith, in a Series of Sermons by the Rev John Mitchel, Minister of the Presbyterian Congregation, Newry, Newry, Ireland: Robert Greer, 1828.
11 A Collection of Psalms, Hymns and Spiritual Songs, Proper for Christian Worship; Selected and Arranged for the use of Congregations and Families, Newry, Ireland: R. Moffet, Sugar-Island, 1811.
12 Rebecca O'Connor, Jenny Mitchel, Young Irelander: A Biography, Dublin: O'Connor Trust, 1988, 329. The use of autograph calling cards, like that of General Lee, was common both before and during the Civil War, with stocks of such cards often held and retailed by photographers. William Mitchel was killed at Gettysburg in July 1863, aged 19, and John C. Mitchel at Fort Sumter, South Carolina, in July 1864, aged 26.
13 See G. Rude, ‘O'Doherty, Kevin Izod (1823 – 1905)’, ADB. For James Fintan Lalor see S. J. Connolly, ed., Oxford Companion to Irish History, Oxford: University Press, 1998, p. 294.
14 Copies of all three newspaper papers are held by the National Library of Australia.
15 William Dillon, Life of John Mitchel, vol. 1, London: Kegan Paul, 1888, p. 34. For an online version of the 1888 edition of Dillon's biography see Internet Archive, URL:
16 James Quinn, John Mitchel, Dublin: University College Dublin Press, 1988, p. 3.
17 ‘John Purroy Mitchel (1879–1918)’, The Encyclopedia of the Irish in America, ed. Michael Glazier, Indiana: University of Notre Dame Press, 1999, p. 687.
18 Quinn, John Mitchel, p. 85.
19 For details on Jenny Mitchel see Institute of Irish Studies, Queen's University Belfast, online Ulster Dictionary of Biography, [Accessed June 2009]; O'Connor, Jenny Mitchel; and obituary, ‘Death List of a Day. Mrs Jane Verner Mitchel’, New York Times, 4 January 1900, p. 9.
20 MS 13698. William Mitchel to Margaret Irvine (Junior), 30 October 1889.
21 ‘Ireland. John Mitchel's Address’, Freeman's Journal (Sydney), 17 April 1875, p. 3.
22 Mitchel died on 20 March 1875. For details see Quinn, John Mitchel, pp. 85–86.
23 Dillon, John Mitchel, vol. 2, p. 305. ‘Obituary. John Mitchel’, and ‘How the news was received in this city’, New York Times, 21 March, 1875, p. 2; for a more sympathetic obituary notice see the Irish World (New York), 8 April 1875, reproduced in O'Connor, Jenny Mitchel, pp vii-viii; also ‘The Late John Mitchel. The Late Member Elect for Tipperary a Citizen of the United States’, New York Times, 25 March 1875, p. 6.
24 Personal communication., Mr Andrew Irvine Morrison, 2008.
25 William Mitchel, John Mitchel's youngest brother, also had strong political leanings, having worked for a time in Dublin sub-editing the newspaper the Nation in late 1847, see Dillon, Life of John Mitchel, vol. 2, pp. 166–67.
26 ‘Dr W. H. Irvine, M.L.A.’, Argus, 22 August 1904, p. 4.
27 The Treason Felony Act, 1848 was drafted and passed on 13 April 1848, at the instigation of Lord Clarendon, who, wanting to silence the Irish revolutionary press sought to make treason a felony rather than a misdemeanour. John Mitchel and Charles Gavan Duffy were the first two tried under the Act, see Quinn, John Mitchel, pp. 35–36.
28 John Mitchel, Jail Journal, with an Introductory Narrative of Transactions in Ireland by Arthur Griffith, London: Sphere Books, 1983, p. 202.
29 Mitchel's Journal contains numerous evocative descriptions of Van Diemen's Land and its inhabitants, for examples, see Jail Journal, pp. 228, 234–35.
30 Quinn, John Mitchel, p. 51.
31 Mitchel, ‘The Journal Continued’, Jail Journal, pp. 347–358.
32 ‘Prospectus of “The Citizen”. A New Weekly Journal of sixteen quarto pages…to be conducted by John Mitchel, assisted by Thomas Francis Meagher’, Freeman's Journal (Sydney), 20 May 1854, p. 3.
33 The ‘Jail Journal’ was published in serial form in the New York Citizen, from 14th January – 19th August 1854. For a discussion on exile in Irish diaspora politics see Kevin Kenny, ‘Diaspora and Comparison: The Global Irish as a Case Study, Journal of American History, vol. 90, no. 1 (June 2003), pp. 134–62.
34 Mitchel edited or published the following newspapers: the Nation (Dublin) 1843–1847; the United Irishman (Dublin) from 12 February – 27 May 1848; Citizen (New York), 7 January – 31 December 1854; the Southern Citizen (Knoxville, Tennessee), from October 1857; removed to Washington DC, December 1858 – August 1859; the Richmond Enquirer (Virginia) 1862–63; the Richmond Examiner, 1863; edited the New York Daily News (1865); the Irish Citizen (New York) October 1867 – 27th July 1872. In addition, over the years 1860–1870 Mitchel was correspondent for a number of Irish and American newspapers including the Nation (Dublin), the Irishman (Dublin), the Charleston Standard (and Mercury), Irish American (New York), and Daily News (New York).
35 On this topic see Quinn, John Mitchel, p. 49, quoting from Smith O'Brien. There are also numerous references to individuals noting Mitchel's erudition cited in Dillon's biography.
36 For detailed provenance history of the publishing of Last Conquest of Ireland see Patrick Maume, Introduction and Biographical Note, The Last Conquest of Ireland Perhaps, Patrick Maume, ed., Dublin: University College Dublin Press, 2005, pp. ix-xxx.
37 William E. H. Lecky, Leaders of Public Opinion in Ireland, vol. 1, London: Longmans Green & Co., 1903, p. xiii.
38 Thomas Davis, ‘The Library of Ireland’, first published in the Nation, 28 June 1845, in D. J. O'Donoghue, ed., Essays Literary and Historical by Thomas Davis, Centenary Edition, with an essay by John Mitchel. Dundalk, Ireland: Dundalgan Press, 1914, p. 349–55. This series became the Irish national series and was mass produced by publishers such as James Duffy & Co. of Dublin, becoming a staple on colonial Irish book import lists.
39 John Mitchel, Life of Aodh O'Neill, Prince of Ulster; called by the English Hugh, Earl of Tyrone, Dublin: James Duffy & Co. Ltd, 1845.
40 Last Conquest of Ireland, pp. 133–34; Mitchel, History of Ireland, vol. 2, pp. 211, 221.
41 Last Conquest of Ireland, p. xvi.
42 See for example, Charles Gavan Duffy, My Life in Two Hemispheres, vol. 1, London: Unwin, 1898, p. 273; and ‘The Fleet and the Famine’, extracts from a letter of A. M. Sullivan to Mr Spring Rice, Freeman's Journal (Sydney), 27 January 1864, p. 2.
43 Roy Foster, ‘Ascendancy and Union’, Oxford History of Ireland, ed. R. F. Foster, Oxford: University Press, 1989, p. 170.
44 James Quinn, John Mitchel, p. 54.
45 This paper is also referred to by Dillon as the Charleston Mercury, see William Dillon, Life of John Mitchel, vol. 2, London, Kegan Paul, 1888, p. 160.
46 MS 13698. John Mitchel to Hill Irvine, 16 April 1861.
47 In later Paris years, when travelling, Mitchel often went under an assumed name, and in disguise, see Dillon, John Mitchel, vol. 1, p. 162.
48 MS 13698. John Mitchel to Margaret Hill Irvine, 28 April 1861.
49 MS 13698. John Mitchel to Hill Irvine, 9 July 1861, Australian Manuscripts Collection, SLV. For details on the Irishman in this period see R. V. Comerford, The Fenians in Context. Irish Politics and Society 1848–82, Dublin: Wolfhound Press, 1998, pp. 95–96.
50 MS 13698, John Mitchel to Hill Irvine, 17 July 1861. For the dissociation with church news see for example the first editorial of the Fenian newspaper The New Zealand Celt (NZC) established by Victorian miners in the South Island West Coast town of Hokitika, New Zealand, in 1867, NZC, 26 October 1867, p. 8. This newspaper was subsequently proscribed and its editors imprisoned under the New Zealand Treason Felony Act (1868).
51 MS 13698. John Mitchel to Hill Irvine.
52 Ibid., John Mitchel to Hill Irvine, 17 July 1861.
53 Ibid., John Mitchel to Hill Irvine, 17 July 1861.
54 Ibid., John Mitchel to Hill Irvine, 18 September 1861.
55 Ibid., John Mitchel to Hill Irvine, 18 September 1861.
56 Ibid., John Mitchel to Hill Irvine, 18 September 1861.
57 Ibid., John Mitchel to Hill Irvine, 29 March 1862.
58 Ibid., John Mitchel to Hill Irvine, 29 March 1862.
59 Dillon, Life of John Mitchel, vol. 2, p. 160–61.
60 MS 13698. John C. Mitchel, Fort Johnson, James Island, North Carolina, to Margaret Hill Irvine, Dromalane, 8 September 1863.
61 Ibid., John C. Mitchel to Margaret Irvine, 8 September 1863.
62 Dillon, Life of John Mitchel, vol. 2, pp. 182–88.
63 ‘National Testimonial to John Mitchel. To the Irishmen of the Colony’, Freeman's Journal (Sydney) 16 May 1874, p. 8; also 11 July 1874, p. 13; 17 October 1874, p. 13;, 21 November 1874, p. 7.
64 MS 8622. Joseph Winter Papers, John Martin to Joseph Winter, 2 June 1874, Australian Manuscripts Collection, SLV.
65 ‘National Testimonial to John Mitchel’, Freeman's Journal (Sydney), 16 May 1874, p. 8.
66 Duffy, My Life in Two Hemispheres, vol. 1, p. 250; Mitchel, Last Conquest, p. 17.
67 James Quinn, ‘John Mitchel and the Rejection of the Nineteenth Century’, Éire-Ireland: Journal of Irish Studies (Winter 2003), pp. 1–13. [ Accessed June 2008]. For some details of the Mitchel family in the Southern States see Kieran Quinlan, Strange Kin: Ireland and the American South, Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2005, passim.
68 James H. Murphy, Ireland: a social, cultural and literary history, 1791–1891, Dublin: Four Courts Press, 2003, p. 91; Malcolm Campbell, Ireland's New World: immigrants, politics and society in the United States and Australia, 1815–1922, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Press, 2008, pp. 105–06.
69 This work was sponsored by the Historical Association of Ireland and launched at Trinity College Dublin on 15 January 2009.
70 Mitchel correspondence is held by the Public Record Office of Northern Ireland, the Belfast Central Library, and the Royal Irish Academy, Dublin. The State Library of New South Wales holds one letter, AM 141/2, John Mitchel to G. Baker, 10 July 1853, while the State Library of Tasmania and Tasmanian Archive and Heritage Office hold a small number of transcripts of Mitchel letters, Series NS1065, NS157; letters written by Mitchel to residents in Van Diemen's Land are printed in P. L. Brown, ed., Clyde Company Papers, vols. v-vii, London: Oxford University Press, 1963–71. For further sources see National Library of Ireland, Manuscript Sources for the History of Irish Civilisation, ed. Richard J. Hayes, Boston: G. K. Hall, 1965, pp. 386–87.

Agitation Propaganda Posters in the State Library of Victoria

Sincerest thanks to the artists Viva Gibb and Russell Kerr for their willingness to discuss their work, and for their patience and time.
1 Agitprop is the abbreviation for ‘agitation propaganda’ originally coined in the Soviet Russia of the early 20th century, and now meaning leftist, politicised art created to effect political change.
2 Gabriella Coslovich, ‘Laughing all the way to the Banksy’, Age, 13 November 2008: (Viewed 14 January 2009).
3 ABC News ‘Banksy's work snapped up at street art auction’, (Viewed 14 January 2009).
4 While working at RedPlanet, Carol Porter, for example, would use more than 20 colours in her posters, requiring enormous amounts of time and effort to produce her limited edition screen prints. Examples of her work can be viewed on the web via the State Library of Victoria's catalogue.
5 Liz McQuiston, Graphic Agitation: social and political graphics since the sixties, London: Phaidon, 1993, pp. 54–55.
6 Ric's Metrople Paris: a chronology of ‘May ‘68’, Source: Le Monde – Dossiers & Documents, number 264, (viewed 1 Sept 2008).
7 Atelier Populaire (1969). Originally published as, Atelier populaire présenté par lui-meme, 87 affiches de mai-juin 1968, Paris, Usines, Universités, Union, 1968. The State Library of Victoria's copy was purchased in 1970 (AEF 759.4 T2).
8 Atelier Populaire, (1969), preface.
9 Lincoln Cushing, ‘A brief history of the “clenched fist” image’,, (viewed 12 January 2008).
10 Term applied by the author, not artist.
11 All quotations form correspondence with Viva Gibb, 14 September 2008.
12 Alice in Wonderland, (1982), silkscreen printed in red on yellow paper, H98.162/30. Showing rows of rabbits in a laboratory hooked up to electric wires while a white-coated man moves between the laboratory benches; This little piggy went to market …, (1982), silkscreen printed in black and red on pink paper, H98.162/29. Showing pigs in cages being fed with antibiotics and contaminated animal products; Why? Man's monstrous crime. Vivisection, (ca. 1980-ca. 1982), silkscreen printed in brown on white japanese paper, H98.162/28. Shows an image of a monkey in a small cage; Birds in paradise, (ca. 1985), silkscreen on white paper, H2003.90/598. Comments on the cruelty of battery chicken farming. Uranium Shares Boom (1982), silkscreen printed in brown and black on silver paper, H98.162/25. Image is a huge mushroom cloud from a nuclear explosion; and Saving the last dance for you (ca. 1978-ca. 1982), silkscreen printed in purple on pink paper, H98.162/23. Shows two skeletons dancing on top of the world. It refers to the U.S. President Ronald Reagan's Star Wars policy.
13 Pensioners: the final solution (1978), silkscreen printed in black on green paper, H98.162/19; Popondetta 1943. Diggers hanged 34 fuzzy wuzzy angels. Lest we forget (1978), silkscreen printed in yellow and black on white paper, H98.162/17, text includes a quote from Sir Edmund Herring: ‘I have a clear conscience about it. One thing you have got to realise is that natives had to realise who was in charge. They had to know the gun was loaded’.
14 For Edmund Herring (1892–1982) see ADB.
15 Correspondence with Viva Gibb, 14 September 2008.
16 Viva Gibb, C.I.A. Assassin, poster: silkscreen printed in green and black on white paper, 1974, H98.162/16, Pictures Collection, State Library of Victoria.
17 Frey, Poster no. 74 reproduced in Atelier Populaire, Posters from the revolution, Paris, May, 1968; texts and posters, London: Dobson, 1969, p. 10. This poster was a tool of protest against Minister Frey, the former Minister for Home Affairs in France's Gaullist government, who is named as responsible for the anti-worker actions of the Committee for the Defense of the Republic.
18 Australian Disruptive, (Viewed 10 January 2009); Published aims: ‘Australian Disruptive is a collective of graphic activists. Established to cultivate social change through graphic agitation, we believe that a more just society can be achieved through subversive visual strategies’.
19 Breakdown Press, (Viewed 10 January 2009).
20 Russell Kerr, (Viewed 4 October 2008).
21 Russell Kerr, (Viewed 4 April 2008; 10 March 2009).
22 Russell Kerr, The Whale Conservation Front. To quote the published aims: ‘The WCF's primary mission is to use creative expression to raise the profile of whale conservation internationally, specifically targeting young people who are active in the creative industries and the arts. The WCF aims to influence government policy through creative direct action focused on enforcing domestic and international laws banning commercial whaling in Australian Waters’, (viewed 12 March 2009); and Kerr, Russell Nike oppression, 2005. The published aims: “Nike oppression is a self initiated campaign in response to Nike's recent ‘Nike Free’ campaign launching a new running shoe. I felt the wording used in the campaign was offensive and required direct action. I created a logo, slogan, poster and website to raise awareness of the contradictions between Nike's ad campaign and Nike's human rights record”. (not able to view as at 12 March 2009).
23 Russell Kerr, A Quest for ‘Something Nicer’ Grassroots visual communication, participatory culture, student activism and youth. [Thesis] 2007, (Viewed 8 June 2008).
24 Pictures Collection, H2006.53/1-5.
25 Russell Kerr, End of Print, 2005, (viewed 4 April 2009; website no longer live); the project's rationale is explained elsewhere: (viewed 4 April 2008).
26 ‘Man dies amid G20 protests’ (Viewed 10 April 2009).
27 Breakdown Press, (Viewed 12 January 2009). All information about Breakdown Press and quotations that follow come from this website unless otherwise noted.
28 Marc Martin, The more you spend, the more you profit, 2006, H2009.37/55, Pictures Collection, State Library of Victoria.
29 Stephen Walker, Consume, 2006, H2009.37/50, Pictures Collection, State Library of Victoria.
30 Deborah Kelly, Nuclear power will solve global warming and feed all the world's children, 2007, H2009.37/1; Mathew Kneebone, Singular mentality, 2007, H2009.37/11; Arlene TextaQueen, Nudes not nukes, 2007, H2009.37/5. All works Pictures Collection, State Library of Victoria.
31 Review and interview: (viewed 17 March 2009).
32 Review/promotional piece about the posters: (Viewed 17 March 2009).
33 ‘Street art moves to posh new hang-out’, Sydney Morning Herald, 9 April 2007, (Viewed 4 October 2008).
34 Catherine Morrison, ‘Between the lines’, Guardian, April 30, 2002, (Viewed 4 May 2008).
35 Susan Tschabrun, ‘Off the wall and into a drawer: managing a research collection of political posters’, American Archivist, Vol. 66 (Fall / Winter 2003), p. 320.
36 Rusell Kerr, (2007), p.2, (Viewed 4 April 2008).

This Book Belongs to …

1 Brian North Lee, ‘Frozen bookplates’, Bookplate Journal, new series, vol. 3, no. 2, September 2005, p. 138.
2 Working from stockbook printouts, the then Registrar, Gordon Morrison, checked plates in the Pictures Collection in late 1992, and with a few exceptions, everything listed was accounted for.
3 See, for example, Mark Ferson, Australian Literature on Bookplates: a bibliography (1899–1988), Sydney: Book Collectors’ Society of Australia, 1988. Ferson's work has a useful analysis year by year which shows that publications peaked in the 1940s, then declined, and began to increase again in 1985.
4 European bookplates collected by L. L. Politzer. Pictures Collection, State Library of Victoria. Ephemera: European bookplates: Box 2/2.
5 Politzer's death certificate gives his place of birth as Vienna. His first marriage took place in the United States when he was 24 and produced three children. It is not clear when his two daughters arrived in Australia, but Klare was naturalized in 1941. His short biography in H. W. Malloch's Fellows All: the chronicles of the Bread and Cheese Club, Melbourne (Melbourne: The Club, 1943), gives his place of birth as Munich, information presumably supplied by Politzer himself. He also taught cookery at the Emily McPherson College, and was the author of Polly's Cooking Course in 20 lessons. His expertise was in paper bag cookery. He also conducted ‘the first cabaret in Australia’. He was obviously a man of many interests and talents. For an obituary see Bohemia, vol. 9, June 1954, p. 5.
6 Letter from Nettie Palmer, dated 3 June 1931, Letters to Ludwig Louis Politzer, MS 10361, Box 214/5, Australian Manuscripts Collection, State Library of Victoria.
7 [Catalogue of an] Exhibition of … Ex Libris (Book Plates) commencing March 30th [1925], Pictures Collection, Politzer provenance file, State Library of Victoria.
8 Bernard Hall, ‘Memo re Exhibition of Book Plates & recommendation for purchase’, VPRS 805, unit 25, Public Record Office Victoria. Memo dated 31 March 1925.
9 There is a copy in the Politzer provenance file, Pictures Collection, State Library of Victoria.
10 Kolb did not die until 1942, but it would have been difficult for Politzer to know this, considering the dearth of publicly available published information on European graphic artists.
11 Robert Henderson Croll (c.1869–1947). See ABD.
12 It is clear from memos in the Director's outwards correspondence to 1945 that Hall had little time for dealers, even less for collectors, was engaged for some years in a running battle of wills with the Felton Committee over acquisitions and funding, and resented suggestions for acquisitions by members of the public.
13 Brighton Cemetery, Jewish section, compartment C, Grave 10a. I am grateful to the Brighton Cemetorians [sic] for providing this information and a digital photograph of the tombstone.
14 The Central Database of Shoah Victims’ Names (accessed 4 June 2009). (accessed 4 June 2009).
15 University of Minnesota. Center for Holocaust & genocide studies. (accessed 7 July 2009).
16 (accessed 4 June 2009).
17 (accessed 4 June 2009).
18 R. H. Croll, VPRS 800, unit 30, inwards letters 1924–1925, letter 50, Public Record Office Victoria.
19 Each bookplate bears a stamp in faint black ink in small capitals: STATE LIBRARY OF VICTORIA. No further information has been found on the reverse of any of the plates.
20 Phillip Goodman, ‘Marco Birnholz – ex libris’, journal article without reference, pp. 15–25, dated 1952, from the John Gartner collection. Birnholz's collection, minus many examples, was reluctantly returned to him after the war after intervention by the US government in 1950.
21 For Foxcroft, see Shane Carmody, ‘A life of scholarship: A. B. Foxcroft at the Melbourne Public Library’, La Trobe Journal, no. 79, Autumn 2007, pp. 82–96.
22 Mrs Zelma Gartner and Mr Edwin Jewell kindly made a transcript of this interview (not dated) available for safekeeping with other documentation on the collection.
23 References to numerous on-line sources in the National Art Library, Victoria & Albert Museum, London (accessed 13–25 May, 2009).
24 Muir ran the Beck Book Company in Adelaide and also founded the Wakefield Press.
25 Norbert Nechwatal, Michel Fingesten, 1884–1943: das graphische werk, Coburg, Germany: Druckhaus Neuve Presse 1984. Unsigned review, Bookplate Journal, vol. 3, no. 1, March 1985, pp. 47–48.
26 Ex Libris Museum (accessed 8 March 2009). All the information I have is provided from this source, translated by Google. I have chosen to highlight Fingesten because he is yet another example of a life ruined by persecution during World War II.
27 Richard Braungart, ‘Kreig und Kunst’, Die Kunst fur Alle, 29, nos. 23–24 (1913–1914), p. 553. Quoted in Joes Segal, ‘The work of art as a mirror of national identity…’, European Review of History, vol. 4, issue 1, 1997, pp. 9–17.
28 Series 1 and 2. When these two series are integrated, a clearer picture of the holdings will emerge. There are four separate series in the present arrangement, and the control is an alphabetical artists list which gives the number of plates, and their location within the four series. I intend to arrange the collection by country of origin, and within each country series, alphabetically by artist. Research files, including checklists will be similarly arranged. The size of the task means that it would probably take two years’ full-time work, including re-housing, inscribing artists’ names on each mount, data entry and extensive research.
29 These appear to have been collected through the good offices of Dr. Ichiguro Uchida, a noted collector and bookplate competition judge of international reputation, The FISAE portal lists member societies, most of which art in Europe, but there are 3 associations in China, and one in Japan. The next FISAE Congress will be held in Istanbul in August 2010.

Setting the Scene

1 Some further examples of Pitt's architectural drawings were acquired from the Berry Auction Sale, Australian Book Auctions, 7–8 April, 2008. Figure one (p. 77) was one of those purchased from the sale.
2 Victorian Parliamentary Debates, 9 July 1918, vol. 149, p. 7.
3 Ibid.
4 Leader, 1 June 1918, p. 17.
5 Licensed Victualler's Advocate, 28 January 1879, p. 8.
6 Mimi Colligan, ‘William Pitt snr’, in P. Parsons, ed, Companion to Theatre in Australia, Sydney: Currency Press in association with Cambridge University Press, 1995, pp 443–4.
7 Argus, 30 Oct. 1872, supp., p. 1.
8 Ballarat Star, 28 Dec. 1889, supp., p. 1.
9 Argus, 2 Oct. 1908, p. 5; Death Certificate of Stanley Melbourne Pitt.
10 New Zealand Truth, 21 March 1914, p 2; New Zealand Truth, 18 July 1914, p. 5.
11 New Zealand Truth, 18 July 1914, p. 5.
12 Argus, 5 Feb. 1925, p. 9; Argus, 13 March 1925, p. 9; Argus, 18 Nov. 1925, p. 17.
13 Harry Musgrove, ‘Stage Secrets’, Table Talk, 2 September 1926, p. 9.
14 Daily Telegraph, 19 December 1886, p. 7.
15 T W H Leavitt, ed, ‘Arthur Garner’, Australian Representative Men, Melbourne: Wells and Leavitt, 1887, vol. 1, unpaginated.
16 Table Talk, 22 March 1889, p. 6.
17 Argus, 30 Sept. 1886, p. 5.
18 Argus, 20 Dec. 1886, p. 7. Harry Musgrove Snr, ‘Stage Secrets’, Table Talk, 2 Sept. 1926, p. 9.
19 Age, 20 Dec. 1886, p. 6.
20 Nellie Stewart. My Life's Story, Sydney: J. Sands, 1923, p. 76.
21 Age, 20 Dec 1886, p. 6; Australasian, 25 December 1886, p. 1226; West Australian, 7 June 1897, p. 2.
22 See Allom Lovell & Associates Pty Ltd, The Princess Theatre: an appraisal of the conservation constraints, Melbourne: Allom Lovell & Associates, 1986, fig. 31.
23 Alan Gowans, in Charles L. Eastlake, A History of the Gothic Revival, New York: Library of Victorian Culture, 1979, p. x.
24 R. Mander and J. Mitchenson, Lost Theatres of London, London: New English Library, 1976, pp. 11–24, passim.
25 Australasian Builder and Contractors News, 25 July 1891, pp. 66–7; MS 13293 Box 3867/5. Elizabeth Pitt Album, Australian Manuscripts Collection, State Library of Victoria.
26 Alexander Sutherland, ed, Victoria and its Metropolis, Melbourne: McCarron Bird, 1888, vol. II, p. 529.
27 For the development of sliding roofs in theatres see Terry Sawyer, ‘Theatres of Influence: the remarkable music halls of Robert Edwin Villiers, Theatre Notebook, vol. 62, no. 3, pp 144–62.
28 New York Times, 9 Jan 1910, Part vi, p. 9.
29 Pictures Collection, State Library of Victoria, Faculty of Architecture, Building and Planning Collection, WD THE 15 Sheet 16 dated 10 June 1886.
30 Argus, 20 December 1886, p. 7.
31 Miles Lewis, Australian Building: a Cultural Investigation, electronic resource,, pp 8.05.5; 8.05.7.
32 Victorian Heritage Database, electronic resource,;743.
33 Australasian Builder and Contractors News, 15 November, 1890, p. 362.
34 Alan Holgate, John Monash's engineering work prior to World War One, electronic resource,∼aholgate/jm/bldgtext/bldgs19.html#spinks.
35 Ibid,∼aholgate/jm/bldgtext/bldgs19.html#willtheatre
36 J. Mordaunt Crook, The Dilemma of Style, London: John Murray, 1989, p. 128.
37 Australasian Builder and Contractors News, 16 February 1889, p. 150.

Treasured Ephemera

I would like to thank the Editor, the librarians from State Library of Victoria, and especially Ms Kerry Hall, as well as preservation specialists, Alice Cannon and David Harris, for their invaluable assistance during the preparation of this article.
1 See Daniela Kaleva, ‘Gustav Holst and British Music Society of Victoria Collections at the State Library of Victoria’, Fontes Artis Musicae, vol. 55, no. 1, January – March (2008), pp. 170–179.
2 The President of the British Music Society, Victorian Branch was Thomas Brentnall, also Vice-President of the Melbourne Music Club and Melbourne Representative of the Associate Board of the Royal Academy of Music and the Royal College of Music. The Treasurer was Jimmy Dyer, and the Vice-Presidents, Fritz Hart (Albert Street Conservatorium), Professor Laver (University Conservatorium) and Alberto Zelman, Jr. Melba was patron of the society. Jim Davidson, Lyrebird Rising: Louise Hanson-Dyer of Oiseau-Lyre 1884–1962, Carlton, Vic.: Melbourne University Press, 1994, p. 92.
3 Jim Davidson, ‘Dyer, Louise Berta Mosson Hanson (1884–1962)’, ADB.
4 ‘Note bibliographique sur Louise Hanson-Dyer’, MS 10770. Louise Berta Mosson Dyer, (1891–1962). Papers, 1926–1971, Australian Manuscripts Collection, State Library of Victoria.
5 See Kevin McBeath's interview with Dr Hanson, ‘The Lyrebird in Paris’, Record Society Monthly Review, vol. 5 no. 1 (July 1964), p. 1.
6 Davidson, Lyrebird Rising, p. 92.
7 See Eileen Chanin and Daniela Kaleva, ‘Louise Hanson-Dyer: leading by example’, Music Forum Magazine, vol. 15, no. 3 (2009), pp. 27–29.
8 In 2006 the Hanson-Dyer estate left a large bequest to the University of Melbourne and as a consequence the University's music library was renamed the Louise Hanson-Dyer Music Library. See
9 W. G. Whittaker, ‘The B.M.S. in Australia’, Music Bulletin, vol. 6 no. 1, (January 1924), p. 18. In MS 10770. Louise Berta Mosson Dyer, (1891–1962) Papers, 1926–1971
10 See Don Hauser, Printers of the Streets and Lanes of Melbourne (1837–1975), Melbourne: Nondescript Press, 2006, p. 36.
11 ‘The Assembly Hall’, Victorian Heritage Database,;9658, accessed 26 August 2009.
12 See David Tunley, William James and the Beginnings of Modern Musical Australia, Grosvenor Place, NSW.: Australian Music Centre, 2004.
13 Davidson, ‘Dyer, Louise Berta Mosson Hanson (1884–1962)’, ADB.
14 Press cuttings in MS 10770. Louise Berta Mosson Dyer, (1891–1962). Papers, 1926–1971.
15 ‘The name most commonly applied by contemporary scribes to instrumental settings of an English 16th-century popular tune’, The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, vol. 4, p. 451.

The Gentleman's Piers Plowman

1 The Gentleman's Magazine, n. s., vol. 19 (1843), pp. 339–58, at 339: review of Thomas Wright, ed, The Vision and Creed of Piers Ploughman, 2 vols, London: William Pickering, 1842.
2 Stephanie Trigg, ‘The Injuries of Time: Geoffrey Chaucer, Thomas Speght and Wade's boat’, La Trobe Journal, no. 81 (Autumn 2008), pp. 106–17, at 106.
3 Review, p. 345n., here plagiarizing Thomas Percy's words from his essay on the metre of Piers Plowman in his Reliques of Ancient English Poetry, 2 vols, Dublin, 1766, ii, pp. 206–07. Our reviewer often lifts phrases from earlier authors without attributing them as carefully as he might have.
4 Review, p. 345n. These four editions are Short Title Catalogue [STC] items 19906, 19907a, 19907, and 19908 respectively. On the production of Crowley's three editions, including the common misapprehension that STC 19907 preceded 19907a, see R. Carter Hailey, ‘Robert Crowley and the Editing of Piers Plowman (1550)’, Yearbook of Langland Studies, vol. 21 (2007), pp. 143–70.
5 ‘The Visions of Piers Plowman’, The Gentleman's Magazine, n. s., vol. 1 (1834), pp. 385–91, at 386. On Whitaker's edition, see Charlotte Brewer, Editing ‘Piers Plowman’: the evolution of the text, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996, pp. 36–45, and Sarah Kelen, Langland's Early Modern Identities, New York: Palgrave, 2007, pp. 107–26.
6 Housed in the Rare Book Collection at ∗S 821.15 V.
7 W. P. Courtney, ‘Mitford, John (1781–1859)’, rev. James Edgar Barcus, Jr., Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004 (accessed 10 December, 2008), the source for further biographical information cited below.
8 The attribution is in James M. Kuist, The Nichols File of “The Gentleman's Magazine”: attributions of authorship and other documentation in editorial papers at the Folger Library, Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1982, p. 110. Its absence from Vincent DiMarco, Piers Plowman: a reference guide, Boston: G. K. Hall, 1982, is most likely responsible for its absence as well from Brewer's and Kelen's books. Arthur Sherbo cites another item from the magazine missing from DiMarco's book, ‘probably because it is not listed in the index volumes of GM’, which would account for this item's absence as well: ‘Samuel Pegge, Thomas Holt White, and Piers Plowman’, Yearbook of Langland Studies, vol. 1 (1987), pp. 122–28, at 123.
9 John J. Thompson, ‘Bishop Thomas Percy's Contributions to Langland Scholarship: two annotated Piers Plowman prints in Belfast’, in The Medieval Book and a Modern Collector: essays in honour of Toshiyuki Takamiya, ed. Takami Matsuda, Richard A. Linenthal, and John Scahill, Woodbridge, Virginia: D. S. Brewer, 2004, pp. 451–59, at 452.
10 Now British Library C.71.c.29. George Kane had earlier speculated that Tyrwhitt ‘was evidently comparing [the texts of Crowley and Rogers] with a copy of C, probably Q (C.U.L. Addl. MS 4325)’, a manuscript that bears the initials ‘T.T.’ (‘The Text’, in A Companion to Piers Plowman, ed, John A. Alford, Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1988, pp. 175–200, at 176).
11 No, Lehigh University Library 821.1 L265p 1550, available in full-colour digital facsimile, accessed 20 August, 2009.
12 Thus turning it into two thick volumes, now Oxford, Bodleian, Rawlinson 272/73. I plan to discuss this and Ritson's Lehigh copy in more detail in a future study of the eighteenth-century textual scholarship on Piers Plowman.
13 Carl Grindley, ‘An Eighteenth-Century Concordance of Piers Plowman’, Notes & Queries, n. s., vol. 42 (1995), pp. 162–64.
14 Students of the early modern reception of Chaucer have begun to analyse the annotations of the printed editions: see, e.g., Alison Wiggins, ‘What Did Renaissance Readers Write in their Printed Copies of Chaucer?’ The Library, vol. 9 (2008), pp. 3–36; Antonina Harbus, ‘A Renaissance Reader's English Annotations to Thynne's 1532 Edition of Chaucer's Works ’, Review of English Studies, vol. 59 (2008), pp. 342–55.
15 Thomas Tyrwhitt, ed, The Canterbury Tales of Chaucer, London: T. Payne, 5 vols. 1775–8, iv, p. 74. This and the items below are widely discussed (e.g., E. Talbot Donaldson, Piers Plowman: The C-text and its poet, New Haven: Yale University Press, 1949, pp. 3–7; Kane, pp. 176–77; Brewer, pp. 20–36).
16 Joseph Ritson, Bibliographia Poetica, London: C. Roworth, 1802, p. 30 n. See Brewer, p. 21 n.6 (note that Hearne inscribed only this Bodleian copy; the supposed British Library copy she mentions there is a ghost).
17 Thomas Warton, The History of English Poetry …: a new edition carefully revised [by Richard Price], 4 vols., London: Thomas Tegg, 1824, ii, p. 482. Critics commonly cite Price as the ‘discoverer’ of the A version, but this is very misleading, as the copy in which he identified this third version has what we now call a ‘C continuation’ and thus is some 4500 lines longer than the ‘A version’ we now know, whose most distinctive characteristic is precisely its relative shortness. Brewer points this out as well, also noting a few other problems with his textual analysis, with the caveat that ‘it is distinctly ungenerous to cavil at these shortcomings given Price's notable gains on the work of his predecessors’ (p. 47).
18 For a summary of the situation see Brewer, pp. 181–208; the phrase first appeared prominently in J. J. Jusserand, ‘Piers Plowman: The Work of One or of Five’, Modern Philology, vol. 6 (1909), pp. 271–329, arguing for single authorship.
19 George P. Marsh, The Origin and History of the English Language, and of the Early Literature it Embodies, London: Sampson, Low, 1862, p. 297. For a biography see David Lowenthal, George Perkins Marsh: versatile Vermonter, New York: Columbia University Press, 1958.
20 John M. Manly, ‘The Authorship of Piers the Plowman’, Modern Philology, vol. 14 (1916), pp. 315–16, at 316.
21 Morton W. Bloomfield said that Marsh ‘maintained a theory of dual authorship. His views are probably based upon Wright's’ (‘The Present State of Piers Plowman Studies’, Speculum, vol. 14 (1939), pp. 215–32, at 215). Brewer, p. 184 and n. 3, says that Wright's idea of dual authorship ‘had been repeated by George Marsh in 1860’, but that earlier comment, too, quite clearly identifies more than two authors: ‘it is by no means improbable that both [Whitaker's and Wright's texts] are very unlike the author's original’.

Notes on Contributors

Michael Aitken is a retired optometrist who has been a passionate collector in several areas of Australiana. In recent years his focus has been on early local ephemera including pioneer Christmas cards.
Christine [Downer] Bell worked in the Pictures Collection of the State Library from 1981 until 2001. After some years in Dublin, where she catalogued botanical drawings and prints in the Botany Department of Trinity College, she returned to Melbourne and began work on the Gartner Bookplate Collection in 2007.
Meredith Fletcher is a Gippsland historian currently writing a biography of Jean Galbraith. She was awarded a State Library of Victoria Creative Fellowship in 2008 and spent her time researching the Jean Galbraith Papers and reading Galbraith's articles in the Australian Garden Lover.
Stephen Gaunson, a distant relative of Kelly defence lawyer David Gaunson, was a recipient of the State Library of Victoria's AGL Shaw Fellowship in 2008. He is completing a PhD thesis at RMIT University on the visual history of Ned Kelly.
Daniela Kaleva is a scholar librarian with a PhD in musicology from Monash University. Her research interests are focused on performance-related studies and interdisciplinary research of stage genres, music patronage and information management. Louise Hanson-Dyer's output is one of her current projects.
Kevin Molloy is Australian Manuscripts Librarian at the State Library of Victoria. He completed his Ph.D. at Trinity College Dublin on the subject of nineteenth-century Irish historiography and currently writes on international Irish print networks and book history.
Terry O'Neill is a Research Fellow at the National Centre for Australian Studies at Monash University and is Associate Editor of the multi-volume Bibliography of Australian Literature. His article ‘Joan Lindsay: a time for everything’ appeared in the previous issue (no. 83) of the La Trobe Journal.
Terry Sawyer is a Melbourne architectural historian. In 2005–06 he was awarded a State Library of Victoria Creative Fellowship to study the library's collection of architectural drawings from the office of the prominent nineteenth-century architect William Pitt.
Olga Tsara is a librarian in the Pictures Collection of the State Library of Victoria. Her secondment in 2007 to the Australian History and Literature Team where she worked on the political posters in the extraordinary Riley and Ephemera Collection inspired her article.
Lawrence Warner is a Lecturer in Middle English at the University of Sydney and is the co-editor of the Yearbook of Langland Studies ( In 2010 the University of Pennsylvania Press will be publishing his The Lost History of Piers Plowman.
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