State Library of Victoria > La Trobe Journal

No 79 Autumn 2007

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Fig. 1. Title page, Book of Hours, Geofroy Tory 1531. Rare Book Collection. *S095 T63.

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Hilary Maddocks
Geofroy Tory's 1531 Book of Hours

In 1934 the Melbourne Public Library (now the State Library of Victoria) acquired, with funds from the Felton Bequest, a Book of Hours published and printed in 1531 by the well-known Parisian humanist, Geofroy Tory.1 The small prayer book, purchased for what was then the considerable sum of £850, came from the library of London book dealer and collector E.P. Goldschmidt,2 who described it as ‘a famous copy of the finest of Tory's Hours’ (Goldschmidt 1934: 45).
Tory published five principal editions of Books of Hours in the 1520s and 1530s. In design and illustration they were a radical departure from the medieval conventions of contemporary Parisian printed Books of Hours, and with the Champ fleury, his famous

Fig. 2.‘Triumph of Death’, Book of Hours, Geofroy Tory, 1531.

Fig. 3.‘Adoration of the Magi’ Book of Hours, Geofroy Tory, 1531.

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treatise on typography, have made Tory a celebrated figure in the history of the French book.
The State Library copy of the 1531 Hours is one of about 17 extant from the 1531 edition.3 In addition to representing an important edition, it is of great significance because of its rare original sixteenth-century binding. The black calf is blind-tooled front and back with the distinctive classically-influenced pot cassé or broken jar design associated with Tory, and is one of only six examples of this size extant. This binding is an early example of binding in the Renaissance style and one of the first French bindings that can be identified with an individual publisher or binder.
The high price paid by the library in 1934 for the Tory Hours acknowledged the importance of both the edition and binding. In 1937 the Senior Assistant Librarian, A.B. Foxcroft, was prompted to publish a small booklet on the recent acquisition.4 However, despite its former celebrity, this precious copy of the Tory Hours is not well known to scholars today. Last recorded in a 1973 publication on bindings, the book was not included in at least two recent catalogue listings of Tory's 1531 edition.5
Geofroy Tory was an editor, writer, bookseller, publisher, printer and, as some have claimed, calligrapher, designer and bookbinder.6 Most of what we know about his life derives from the Champ fleury, and the prefaces and dedications in his other books. Tory was born around 1480 in Bourges and died around 1533. As a young man he spent about two years in Italy, studied in Bologna, and returned to Paris about 1505. His literary career began in January 1508 with the publication of his edition of Pomponius Mela for the bookseller Jean Petit. This was followed by a succession of classical editions. He married in 1511 and his daughter Agnes was born 26 August 1512. He again went to Italy, probably for some time, as he records having seen the Coliseum ‘mille fois’. He returned around 1521. The following year his beloved daughter died just short of her tenth birthday, and Tory recorded the sad event in a memorial verse and prose text in Latin, printed by Simon de Colines and published by Tory in 1523. In this publication we see his first use of the pot cassé or broken jar pierced by a lance or toret (a pun on Tory's name) that appears on the title page of the 1531 Book of Hours [Fig. 1]. This and the motto non plus, which is recorded in his publications, were perhaps symbols of his daughter's tragically shortened life. In 1523 he rented a shop as a libraire or publisher in the rue St Jacques in Paris and by 1524 the pot cassé also became his shop sign. In 1529 his patriotic exposition on the development of the French letter, the Champ fleury, was printed by Simon de Colines. From 1529 Tory also operated as a printer and in 1531 was awarded by François I the title imprimeur du roi. In 1533 he was also admitted libraire-juré, or publisher sworn in by the authority of the University of Paris. He probably died the same year, and after his death his wife Perette Hulin married the publisher Olivier Mallard, who carried on Tory's business.
Tory's principal editions of Books of Hours, printed on paper and all illustrated with full pictorial cycles in four different woodcut sets, date from 1524/5 to 1531.7 The first edition appeared in three versions in 1524 and 1525. Informed by Tory's visits to Italy and
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by Italian humanism, this first edition was dramatically different in design from traditional Parisian printed Hours. The set of woodcut illustrations and borders is in a crisp linear style with a minimum of shading and an emphasis on white background. The style is quite at odds with the characteristically dense, gothic style of early sixteenth-century printed Parisian Hours.
Often printed on vellum, hand decorated and frequently heavily illuminated, contemporary Hours were closely modelled on illuminated manuscripts of the late Middle Ages.8 The new technology of print, which was first used in Paris in 1470, allowed for the production of hundreds of editions of Books of Hours during the first few decades of the sixteenth century. However, there were few innovations in the appearance of these books, and printing seemed to be used mainly as a means of expediting the production process.
Tory's Hours, on the other hand, fully exploited the artistic potential of the printing medium. For the first time in printed French Hours, the design, layout and illustration and even the binding were conceived as a harmonious whole. Medieval conventions of page layout and illustration were eschewed in favour of an integrated, spare design that acknowledged the classical influence and innovations of the Italian Renaissance. The printed book was established as an art form in itself.
The 1531 edition, of which the State Library copy is an example, was the last Book of Hours published by Tory, and was also printed by him. Of the 17 woodcuts used to illustrate this edition, 13 were borrowed from Tory's revolutionary 1524/5 first edition.
Illustrations such as the ‘Triumph of Death’ [Fig. 2], illustrating the Hours of the Dead, and the ‘Adoration of the Magi’ [Fig. 3], illustrating sext in the Hours of the Virgin, both first used in the previous edition, show the spare, elegant manner based on classical architectural motifs and figure proportions. The ‘Triumph of Death’ also includes Tory's mottos non plus and sic ut, used liberally in the illustrations and borders of his books. Of the four other woodcut illustrations not drawn from the 1524/5 edition, two plates, both representing the Annunciation, were new to this edition (f.H8 and f.L6) and two others, the small ‘Trinity’ (f.R7) and ‘Assumption of the Virgin’ (f.V3) derive from Tory's fourth Hours published in 1529. While the borders of the text pages in the 1531 Hours are also from the first edition, the classical borders of the illustration pages are new.
Unlike the heavily painted metalcuts and woodcuts of many contemporary Hours, the woodcuts of the State Library book are uncoloured. While this might appeal to a modern aesthetic sensibility, in the sixteenth century the taste was often for colour. There are numerous examples of coloured illustrations in editions of Tory's Hours, but they are rather delicate washes that enhance rather than obscure the graceful lines of the woodcuts.9
It seems that Tory was well aware of the revolutionary design of his Books of Hours, as he was granted from King François I two exceptional privileges, the first dated 23 September 1524 at Avignon and the second 5 September 1526 at Chenonceaux.10 These
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Fig. 5.‘Annunciation’, Book of Hours, Geofroy Tory 1531.

privileges gave Tory exclusive publishing rights to his editions, in particular the publication of ‘certain pictures and vignettes’, ‘friezes, borders, crowns and scrolls’. The first was for six years, and first appears in the 1524/5 Hours. The second, which appears in the 1527 Hours printed by Colines, extended these rights by 10 years, and included the previous edition of Hours as well as the Champ fleury of 1529. This protection of original designs was unprecedented in Books of Hours. Extracts from these two privileges are also printed on the recto of the last leaf in Tory's 1531 Hours.
It was claimed by Tory's nineteenth-century biographer Bernard that Tory was personally responsible for the design and even the cutting of the woodcuts in his Hours. This belief was based in part on the wording of the first privilege which tells us that Tory ‘had made and caused to be made’ certain illustrations and vignettes ‘à l'antique’ (or classical
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Fig. 6. Original black calf binding of Book of Hours, Geofroy Tory, 1531.

style), and likewise some ‘à la moderne’ (referring to the more traditional floral borders), in order to have the same printed and to serve ‘diverse books of hours’. However, the four woodcut sets used in the Hours are in quite disparate styles and Tory's authorship has sensibly been disputed by Myra Orth (1976 and 1980) and most recently by Tenschert and Nettekoven (2003:1085ff.) who, like Orth, attribute the design to the manuscript illuminators of the 1520s Hours Workshop.
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Stylistically, the woodcuts have a debt to the graceful native French tradition of manuscript artists such as Bourdichon, but also clearly to Italian woodcuts such as those illustrating the Hypnerotomachia Poliphili, published by Aldus Manutius in Venice in 1499 and known in France soon after. It is highly improbable that as publisher and printer Tory also extended himself to woodcut design and manufacture, and, as Orth suggests, he was more likely the entrepreneur who managed the production of the entire book.
The State Library copy of the 1531 Hours, which follows the use of Rome, is a complete, well-preserved small quarto gathered in 8s, with Tory's device of the pot cassé on the title page and on the verso of the last leaf. This copy needs to be added to the other 16 exemplars from the edition.11
However, while the copy is complete in that it has the full 20 gatherings, one added plate is missing. Two other copies, Bibermühle 133 and that at the Bibliothèque municipale de Versailles, Rés in-4 93B, include a folded oblong plate representing the Triumph of the Virgin, bound before gathering E, just before the Hours of the Virgin. In the woodcut the Virgin is shown in a chariot drawn by Faith, Hope and Charity with the nine Muses and seven Liberal Arts, all in classical dress. Printed below the scene are explanatory verses in French. The style of the illustration is different from the other woodcut images in the book. The Versailles plate is complete [Fig. 4]; that in Bibermühle 133 is damaged and only a section remains. The plate was designed to be folded out, which has probably contributed to its disappearance in other copies. It also appears in some copies of the 1542 Hours printed after Tory's death by his successor Olivier Mallard.12
There are indications that the ‘Triumph of the Virgin’ page may once have been bound into the State Library copy as well. Leaf E1 has been repaired and is mounted on a slightly frayed leaf with vertical chainlines. The later arabic manuscript foliation in the upper right corners is irregular: D8 is foliated as 32, E1 is foliated 33 (under the mount) and E2 is foliated as 33bis. E1 recto may have been printed blank to back the fold-out plate which may have been originally intended for all copies of the 1531 edition.
The iconography of the ‘Triumph of the Virgin’ is not usually found in French Hours of the period, and Tory was probably influenced by similar Triumph scenes in the Hypnerotomachia Poliphili. With the exception of this inserted plate, the iconography of the woodcuts in the 1531 Hours is consistent with other early sixteenth-century printed Books of Hours. While the design, style and often composition of illustration in the book is startlingly original for a Book of Hours, the contents are not. As in any Book of Hours the core text is the Hours of the Virgin, comprising eight divisions or Hours. These texts are illustrated with traditional subjects, such as the ‘Annunciation’ for the Hour of Matins [Fig. 5], the ‘Visitation’ for Laudes, the ‘Flight into Egypt’ for Vespers. Terce is somewhat unusual, being illustrated with the ‘Adoration of the Shepherds’ rather than the more common ‘Annunciation to the Shepherds’. A Book of Hours was essentially a prayer book used for recitation and contemplation, and the conventional contents and iconography of the images

Versailles, Bibliothèque municipale, Book of Hours, Geofroy Tory 1531 (Rés in-4 O 93 B), large page bound before fol.E, Triumph of the Virgin.
© Bibliothèque municipale de Versailles

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in this book suggest that the owners used it in a traditional way for mainly devotional purposes.
The inclusion of handwritten annotations, prayers, notes and poetry in French are all evidence that the book was used. A sixteenth-century owner, Guillaume Dannes, has recorded his name on the first and last page, describing himself as ‘bourgeois, marchand de Paris’. Bourgeois ownership of a Book of Hours is consistent with studies on book ownership in the sixteenth century.13 However, in some respects, this book was not a standard Book of Hours. The sparseness and clarity of the design may not have appealed to an audience accustomed to the appearance of other French Hours with their crowded, dense illustration and — as Roger Wieck aptly put it — horror vacui, or fear of empty spaces (1997:75). Tory was well connected and positioned, in touch with French humanist circles at Blois under François I and Louise de Savoie, and his clientele probably included like minds sympathetic to his intellectual concerns. Another copy of the 1531 Hours, Bibermühle 134, was owned by Tory's contemporary Gilles Corrozet, scholar, author, poet and bookseller. The early owner of the State Library Hours, Guillaume Dannes, may have shared these humanist sympathies, if we can judge from the inclusion of a poem, possibly by Corrozet, on the inside back cover. Below the poem another hand has written: “vers moraulx, Gilles Corrozet fo 45, Galiot Corrozet”.
As already mentioned, the State Library 1531 Hours is especially precious because it is still in its original black calf binding.14 [Fig. 6] This particular binding style, blind-tooled with Tory's distinctive elegant pot cassé design, is recognised as one of the most significant French bindings of the sixteenth century, ‘a supreme masterpiece of Renaissance book decoration’ (Goldschmidt 1927:60).
The pot cassé binding design was made for two sizes: one to bind a book in quarto, like the 1531 Hours, the other for a smaller octavo. The two designs are similar but the octavo design does not include the toret or lance piercing the broken vase. Bindings of both sizes are exceptionally rare: only six of the large and seven of the small can be identified.15 This list modifies the most recent study of Tory's bindings in 1971 by Nixon, who listed six of the large and five of the small.16 To his list of smaller plaques must be added the Doheny 1527 Hours17 and the BNF's octavo Hardouyn Hours of c.1527 (rés-vélins 1531), which Nixon mistakenly believed to be an example of the larger plaque.
To Nixon's list of large plaques can be added an empty cover at BNF (rés. V. 1948) which may or may not have been produced in Tory's lifetime. Tory's successor, Olivier Mallard, continued to use Tory's binding design as well as his materials. For example, the quarto 1535 Diodorus, now at the Musée Condé (cote VIII G22), published by Mallard, is bound in a pot cassé binding.
Like the State Library book's woodcut illustrations, the binding shows the influence of the Italian Renaissance. Medieval French bindings were generally blind tooled with figurative designs such as saints appearing on the leather in plastic relief. Tory's pot cassé
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design is different in that it uses an ornamental, classical language, with flowing vine arabesques seemingly impressed into the leather. This particular example is blind tooled, but most other pot cassé bindings are gold tooled, again influenced by developments in Italy. The presence of the pot cassé links the design to Tory and this is also highly unusual. The names of 21 binders are known from the first three-quarters of the sixteenth century, but none can be linked to actual bindings.18 While Bernard claimed that Tory designed the binding and was even a binder, there is no evidence to support this, and it is more likely that he managed the binding of his books, like the illustration, to order for his select clients. Several pot cassé bindings, like the State Library Hours, are on Tory imprints, and it is possible that Tory arranged for his books to be bound through his own bindery. However, it was generally the purchaser rather than the publisher or printer who had a book bound, and Tory's role in these bindings needs further investigation, particularly in relation to patronage.
Described as ‘both a revolution and a triumph of the French Renaissance book’ (Wieck, 1997: 59), the importance of Tory's Books of Hours should not be underestimated. The precious little book in the State Library of Victoria is a rare example and certainly warrants further scholarly attention.
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1

The purchase of the Hours was recommended at the meeting of the Felton Bequest Committee on 13 April 1934. See State Library of Victora, Minutes of the Felton Bequest committee, PA 96/83 Box 5.
For discussion relevant to the State Library book, see: Ernst Philip Goldschmidt, Gothic and Renaissance Bookbindings, exemplified and illustrated from the author's collection, London, E. Benn, 1928, 2 vols. vol 1: pp. 245–246, entry 159; vol 2: plate LIX; E.P. Goldschmidt and Co, London, The Renaissance in France: the artists, G. Tory, Oronce Finé, Jean Cousin; the writers, Chastellain, Rabelais, Ronsard, Bonnefons; the scholars, Lefèvre d'Etaples, Budé, Turnèbe; the printers, Estienne, Colines, Vascosan, De Tournes … … … / offered for sale by E. P. Goldschmidt & Co. ltd. … London. London, 1934; Public Library, Museums and National Gallery of Victoria. Manuscripts and Books of Art acquired under the terms of the Felton Bequest, Melbourne, Trustees of the Felton Bequest, 1938, pp 10–11, pl. 2; A.B. Foxcroft, Geofroy Tory and his device of the Pot Cassé, Melbourne, Printing Industry Craftsmen of Australia, 1937; Howard M. Nixon, Sixteenth-century gold-tooled bookbindings in the Pierpont Morgan Library, New York 1971, p.15–16, entry 5.

2

This exceeded the price of Caxton's Myrrour of the World, purchased by the library for £810 in 1937 and also the £600 paid for the fifteenth-century manuscript of the English translation of Deguileville's Pèlerinage, purchased the same year.

3

The edition is described by Paul Lacombe, Livres d'heures imprimés au XVe et au XVIe siècle conservés dans le bibliothèques publiques de Paris, Paris 1907, no. 392 bis; Hanns Bohatta, Bibliographie der Livres d'Heures…, Vienna 1924, 1148, 1152?, 1153; Brigitte Moreau, Inventaire chronlogique des editions parisiennes du XVIe siècle, Paris 1992, vol. IV, p.98 entry 192; Heribet Tenschert and Ina Nettekoven, eds, Horae B.V.M.: 158 Stundenbuchdrucke der Sammlung Biblermühle 1490 — 1550/ herausgegebem von Heribert Tenschert und Ina Nettekoven, Antiquariat Heribert Tenschert, Rotthalmünster, 2003, entries 132, 133, 134, pp. 1082–1108. None make mention of the State Library copy. Brigitte Moreau listed 13 extant copies of the 1531 edition. Tenschert and Nettekoven added three more from the Bibermühle collection and omitted Moreau's Provins copy.
Location of other copies of the 1531 Tory Hours with shelf numbers where known is: Bibermühle, Heribert Tenschert collection, nos. 132,133,134; Cambridge, Trinity College Library C.12.104; Cambridge Mass., Harvard College Library, Houghton WKR 18.5.8; Edinburgh University Library; Dd.7.45?; London V&A, L.1402–1933; Manchester, John Rylands University Library; Morlanwelz, Musée Royal de Mariemont; New York, Pierpont Morgan Library PML 15432; Oxford, Keble College Library, KEB Spec. Col Brooke 258; Paris, Bibl. de l'École Nationale Supérieure des Beaux-Arts; Provins Seine-et-Marne; San Marino, Huntington Library, Rare Books 106937; Versailles, Bibl. Mun., Rés. in-4 O 93 B ancien; Washington, Library of Congress BX2080.A2 1531 (Rosenwald Coll).

4

A.B. Foxcroft, Geofroy Tory. Evidently it was intended that other examples of fine binding would be purchased for the library, under the terms of the Felton Bequest, but World War II intervened, expenditure ceased, and the Tory binding remained the only binding acquisition. For an account of Foxcroft, see Shane Carmody's article in this issue. The Felton Bequest and collecting policies of the Library with regard to early printed books and manuscripts are described by Carmody in ‘Mirror of a World: William Caxton at the State Library’, La Trobe Journal, 77, Autumn 2006, pp. 4–22. The reasons for the purchase of the Tory Book of Hours are also given in the brochure published by the Felton Bequest Trustees, Manuscripts and Books of Art, n.p.

5

Howard M. Nixon, Sixteenth-century gold-tooled bookbindings, pp. 15–16, entry 5. Recent catalogues describing Tory's 1531 Hours that omit the State Library of Victoria copy include Brigitte Moreau, Inventaire chronologique des éditions parisiennes du XVIe siècle, Paris 1992, vol. IV, p. 98 entry 192 and Tenschert and Nettekoven, Horae B.V.M., entries 132, 133, 134, pp. 1082–1108.

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For further discussion of Tory's Hours and bindings, see: Alfred W. Pollard, ‘The Books of Hours of Geoffroy Tory’, Bibliographica I, 114–22, 1895; Auguste Bernard, Geofroy Tory, Painter and Engraver. Translated by George B. Ives, Cambridge Mass., the Riverside Press, 1909; A.F. Johnson, ‘Geofroy Tory’, The Fleuron, 6 (1928), pp 37–66. Reprinted in Percy H. Muir, ed, A.F. Johnson, Selected Essays on Books and Printing, London, Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1970, pp. 166–189; Jacques Mégret, ‘Geofroy Tory’, Arts et Métiers Graphiques, no. 28, 1932, pp 7–15; Myra Dickman Orth, Geofroy Tory: the illustrations and decorations in his printed Books of Hours, Institute of Fine Arts, New York University, 1964, unpublished MA thesis (not consulted for this article); also her Progressive Tendencies in French Manuscript Illumination 1515–1530: Godefroy de Batave and the 1520s Hours Workshop, unpublished Ph.D. thesis, New York University, 1976; and also by Orth, ‘Geofroy Tory et l'enluminure. Deux livres d'heures de la collection Doheny’, Revue de l'Art, 50 1980, 40–47; Charles Fairfax Murray, Catalogue of a Collection of Early French Books in the Library of C. Fairfax Murray, compiled by Hugh Wm Davies London 1961 (reprint of 1910 edition), pp. 300–332; Ruth Mortimer, Harvard College Library Department of Printing and Graphic Arts Catalogue of Books and Manuscripts, Part 1: French 16th Century Books, Cambridge Mass. 1964, 391–399; Philippe Renouard, Répertoire des imprimeurs parisiens, libraires, fondeurs de caractères et correcteurs d'imprimerie, Minard, Paris, 1965, pp. 411–412; Anne Anninger, ‘Geoffroy Tory's Borders “à la Moderne” and their Later Fortunes in Portugal’, in Hugh Amory, ed., Essays in honor of James Edward Walsh, 1983, pp. 171–195; Anne Anninger, Parisian Book Illustration 1530–1560:
the decades of liberation, Ph D thesis, Harvard University 1994, UMI.

7

These include three issues of the first edition (use of Rome) all printed by Simon de Colines: the first a quarto with a title page dated 23 September 1524 and a colophon dating the completion to 16 January 1525; the second with a title page attributing the book only to Tory (although the colophon mentions Colines); and the third in Tory's name only, dated 17 January 1525 with title page in French with no border. Two more editions appeared in 1527 on the 21 and 22 October, the first use of Rome printed by Colines, with roman style text and borders ‘à l'antique’, the second by du Bois (use of Paris) with gothic style text and borders ‘à l'antique’. A fourth edition was printed for Tory by an unknown printer (perhaps Tory) on 8 February 1529 (use of Rome), a small octavo or 16mo, and on 20 October 1531 another octavo also printed by Tory himself (use of Rome). There are four sets of woodcuts in different styles used in the Hours.

8

The Hours published by Guillaume Eustace in 1508 in the State Library of Victoria (096 R66 HV) is an example. See my article ‘Art and Text: A Sixteenth-Century printed Parisian Book of Hours’ in The La Trobe Journal, no. 77, Autumn 2006, pp. 23–35.

9

At least one copy of the 1531 Hours is coloured, Bibermühle 134, reproduced in Tenschert and Nettekoven, pp. 1111–1119. Other editions were also coloured. A copy of the third version of the first edition, printed 17 January 1525, New York, Pierpont Morgan Library 17588 is reproduced in Roger S. Wieck, Painted Prayers: the Book of Hours in Medieval and Renaissance Art, Brazillier, New York, 1997, p. 59. See also Ruth Mortimer, Harvard College Library, p.393.

10

Excerpts from the privileges are reproduced by Bernard, Geofroy Tory, pp. 105–9, 121. See also: Elizabeth Armstrong, Before Copyright: The French Book-Privilege System 1498–1526, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1990.

11

Shelf no. RARES 095 T63. 160 leaves with arabic manuscript foliation 1–159 (the folio and signature of leaf 33 recto hidden by the mounting, 33bis follows), collation A–V8, 30 lines, pages 195 × 130mm, binding 200 × 130mm; use of Rome, almanac 1531–1560, colophon dated 20 October 1531. On paper with a fleur de lys watermark, roman text in black and red in Tory's Champ fleury antiqua 81R (Tenschert and Nettekoven pp.1098–1119). Later handwritten notes, prayers and poems on upper and lower endpapers. Original pot cassé binding with later repairs. Clasps missing but two catches remain on both front and back covers.
Provenance: Guillaume Dannes has signed his name in the margins of A1 and V8v. In the nineteenth century the book belonged to the bookseller W. Pickering who has signed his name on a binder's leaf. In the early twentieth century it was in the library of E.P. Goldschmidt. In 1934 the State Library of Victoria purchased the book from Goldschmidt with funds from the Felton Bequest.
Contents: A1: bookplate with Tory's pot cassé device; A1v.: almanac; A2–A2v: text on the calendar; A3–A8v.: calendar; B1–D8v: Gospel extracts and prayers; E1v–N8v.: Hours of the Virgin incl. Advent Office and Christmas Office; O2–O4v.: Hours of the Holy Cross; O5–O6v.: Hours of the Holy Spirit; O7–P3v.: Penitential Psalms; P4–P7v.: Litany; P8–R6v. : Hours of the Dead; R7–V1v.: Suffrages incl. R8: Obsecro te, S1v.: O intemerata, S2v.: Stabat Mater; V3–V7v.: Hours of the Conception of the Virgin and prayers; V8: details of Tory's licence; V8v.: Tory's device and colophon. For a more detailed description see Tenschert and Nettekoven, pp.1100–1102.
Seventeen woodcut illustrations: E1v.–E2 Annunciation across two pages; F3: Visitation; G1: Nativity; G3: Adoration of the Shepherds; G5: Adoration of the Magi; G7: Presentation; H1: Flight into Egypt; H5: Coronation of the Virgin; H8: Annunciation: L6: Annunciation (small); O2: Passion; O5: Pentecost; O7: Penance of David: P8: Triumph of Death; R7: Trinity (small); V3: Assumption of the Virgin (small).

12

The Bibermühle fragment is reproduced in Tenschert and Nettekoven, p.1105. The plate from a Mallard Hours is reproduced in Emile Mâle, Religious Art in France: the Late Middle Ages, Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1986, fig. 163.

13

See Karen Lee Bowen, Christopher Plantin's Books of Hours: Illustration and Production, De Graaf, Nieuwkoop, 1997, pp 41–52; Virginia Reinburg, ‘Books of Hours’ in Andrew Pettegree et al, eds, The Sixteenth-Century French Religious Book, Ashgate, 2001, pp. 68–82, esp.71–72. Both writers cite the seminal work by Albert Labarre, Le Livre dans la vie amiénoise du seizième siècle. L'enseigement des inventaires après décès, 1503–1576, Louvain and Paris, 1971.

14

The binding has been repaired. The front and back panels are original but the spine is modern. The conservation box contains several notes including information that the volume was rebacked by H.Phillips of the binding staff of the British Museum in the early months of 1956. Another note attributes the binding to Tory.

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Known examples of the large binding panel are: 1. Hours 1531 (New York, Pierpont Morgan Library 15432). This copy was listed by Goldschmidt, Gothic and Renaissance Bookbindings, as no. 1, L. Gruel. 2. Hours 1531 (London, V&A, Special Collections RC.F.31). It has been sympathetically re-backed and has a small label which reads ‘Bound by H. Scott, 11 English Street Carlisle’. 3. Hours 1531 (Melbourne, State Library of Victoria shelf no RARES 095 T63). 4. Hours 1531 (Morlanwelz, Musée Royal de Mariemont). This copy was listed by Goldschmidt, Gothic and Renaissance Bookbindings, as no. 2, Didot-Hoe. 5. Diodorus 1535, printed by Olivier Mallard, Paris (Musée Condé, Chantilly, cote VIII G 22); 6. Empty binding (Paris, BNF Rés. V. 1948).
The following are examples of the small binding panel: 1. Doheny Hours 1527 (see note 17); 2. Hieronymo Benivieni, opera, 1519, Filippo de Giunta, Florence (New York, Pierpont Morgan Library 1182). Not known to Goldschmidt. 3. Cebes, 1529, printed by Tory (London, V&A Special Collections drawer 7). Bought by the library as a binding in 1914, it contains an ex-libris plate for Paul Schmidt. It has been rebacked. 4. Egnatius 1529, printed by Tory (Oxford, Bodleian Library, Broxb.10.9). Whereabouts not known to Nixon. 5. Aediloquium 1530, printed by Tory (Paris, BNF. Rés-P-Yc-1284). 6. Petrarca 1525. Giovanniantonio & Fratelli da Sabbio, Venice (London, British Library c.47.g.20); 7. Hours, c.1527, Hardouyn, (Paris, BNF. Rés-vélins 1531). Goldschmidt, Gothic and Renaissance Bookbindings, listed this as an example of a small panel and this was revised by Nixon, Sixteenth-century gold-tooled bookbindings, to a large panel. The BNF has advised me that the book, an octavo, is indeed an example of the small binding panel.
Other later examples of the panel design being used after Tory's death include: a copy of the second edition of the Champ fleury, 1549, which appeared at a Drouot Richelieu sale, Paris, 28 May 2004, bound in an octavo pot cassé design and printed by Viuant Gaultherot. Bernard, Geofroy Tory, p.20, also mentions a Book of Hours of 1556, owned by a M. Neil, printed by the Kervers and again probably bound in a small pot cassé panel.

16

Howard M. Nixon, Sixteenth-century gold-tooled bookbindings, based his list of pot cassé bindings on that of E.P. Goldschmidt's 1927 study, Gothic and Renaissance Bookbindings. Goldschmidt identified five of the small binding panel and four of the large.

17

This is the only pot cassé binding produced in Tory's lifetime the current whereabouts of which is still unknown. It was first mentioned in 1932 by Megret, ‘Geofroy Tory’, where he noted that an Hours of 21 October 1527 with Tory binding was held in the liturgical library of the Comte de Villafranca, Charles-Louis Bourbon, Duke of Parma. It was sold on 1 June 1932 probably to dealer Leon Gruel and then to a Mrs G. Millard of Pasadena in 1933. Mrs Millard sold it to the collector Estelle Doheny, widow of Edward Laurence Doheny. In 1940 the collection was given to the Edward Laurence Doheny Memorial Library housed at St John's Seminary, Camarillo, California. The collection was sold on behalf of the archdiocese of Los Angeles in 1988–89 in a record-breaking sale by Christies. The Tory hours was purchased by Maggs Bros for $44,000. See Orth, 1980 and also Christie, Mason and Woods International Inc., The Estelle Doheny Collection from the Edward Laurence Doheny Memorial Library, St John's Seminary, Camarillo, California: sold on behalf of the Archdiocese of Los Angeles, [1987–1989], New York, New York, entry 1106, p.79.

18

Ernest Thoinan, Les Relieurs français (1500–1800), Genève, Slatkine reprints, 1970, p.124