State Library of Victoria > La Trobe Journal

No 42 Spring 1988

53

The Golden Age Of Patty Pans

Pat-a-cake, pat-a-cake, baker's man!
So I will, master, as fast as I can:
Pat, and prick it, and mark it with T,
Put in the oven for Tony and me.1
The La Trobe Library's collection of Patty Pans and their associated art work provides a valuable insight into the neglected field of Patty Pan history. Little has been recorded about their social role nor about the sophistication reached in their decorative graphics. The collection covers the 1930s to the 1970s and includes examples of the Golden Age of the Patty Pan — 1930 to 1950. Further, the collection highlights the social conventions surrounding the use of cakes and savouries in the daily social and domestic life of the 1930s. The period was the heyday of home baking — butterfly cakes to asparagus rolls. Convention demanded that every household have at least a weekly ‘bake-off’ to provide an adequate supply of small and large cakes for home, lunch box and social activities.
The term Patty Pan is defined in the Oxford Pocket Dictionary as ‘for baking in’. However, the name can be traced to the small sweet and savoury pies, Petites Pates, used at festivals in seventeenth century France.2 Today the expression is understood in the paper trade to refer to a small or medium sized paper receptacle serving as a cooking aid, But while the Patty Pan is easily seen as a cooking aid, firms like Barker and later Barker Cohoes and Gumleaf extended its role into the realm of decorative cake packaging, by developing high quality commercial designs. The designs reflected the events at which the cakes were used — Christmas, bridge parties, children's and adult parties, the war effort, and even national celebrations like the Centenary of Victoria in 1934.
As this article is offered as an introductory discussion of the Library's Patty Pan collection it is proposed to review briefly the principles of Patty Pan manufacture, then to examine the general and social uses of Patty Pans as cooking aids and finally to present some of the Patty Pan graphics in the collection.
The underlying principle in Patty Pan manufacture is the balance of heat and dwell applied to the paper blanks in the shaping die. Once the pre-selected number of paper blanks enter the machine they are processed as a unit called a nest. The number of pans per nest ranges from 12 to 30 and is dependent on the size of the Patty Pan — the smaller the Patty Pan the larger the number per nest. The dwell is the length of time the paper is held under pressure in the mould. It facilitates the stretching and binding of the paper fibres into the required shape set by the mould. The heat ‘sets’ the shape by drying the natural moisture of the fibres and so reduces the tendency of the paper's cellulose fibres to ‘spring back’ to their original position. If the heat is too low the paper will not hold its new shape and flatten out again. If it is too high it will either char the paper or tend to fuse together the individual pans of the nest. Such fusing of the pans makes them too hard and too slow for a cook to separate.
The formation principle requires the use of a special type of grease-proof paper, one that is malleable enough to form the required shape but thick enough to resist the heat of the forming die and later the heat of the cooking oven. It also has to be strong enough to hold the liquid cake mix as it goes into the oven. Further, the paper has to be resistant to butter, which is often used as a coating for the cake or pie tray. High quality Patty Pans should therefore be of a grease-proof strength between 38 and 54 grams in weight.
Technically the production of Patty Pans is not a difficult process. They are formed from paper circles which have been cut from either sheets or reels of paper. In the 1930s the sheets of paper were first printed with the design then cut out with round steel cutting dies in a hand press. The hand press could process the thickness of a ream of paper at one stroke and care was taken to interlace the circles across the paper to maximise the amount of paper used for circles. Once cut, the paper circles were stacked in the turret of the forming machine. The shaping process started with a delicate claw-like mechanical hand moving to the base of the turret to select the predetermined quantity of circles. It then withdrew them and either turned upward at a 40 degree angle or swung sideways to deposit the circles into the mouth of the open die, the movement of the hand being synchronised with the opening and closing of the forming die. Two different arm movements were necessary to cope with the different sizes of paper circles. The 40 degree movement suited the smaller circles while the larger circles needed a sideways movement to avoid the ‘flapping’ of the paper as it turned over in the 40 degree upwards sweep. The male half of the die then pushed the paper into the head of the die and the forming process of heat and dwell took place. Because of the constant repetition of the process the
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formed nests of pans were pushed through the die and a tube below it into a box from which the Patty Pans were packed by hand into their packets. The lower exit tube reinforced the new shape of the paper as it cooled.
When the forming machines were properly maintained they were reminiscent of the dextrous robotic hands of a nuclear laboratory: when misfunctioning — an engineering nightmare. The writer has seen trained engineers lose their usually placid demeanour and reach for a hammer. Despite their temperamen-tality the machines of the 1930s had achieved a considerable sophistication. They were like the last horsedrawn carriages at the eve of the arrival of the motor car.
In contrast the fully automatic forming machines are fed by reels of paper, the number of reels dictating the number of blanks in a nest. A cutting die is placed at the mouth of the forming die and the reels of paper drawn together at the mouth of the die. Therefore the paper can be cut and delivered into the forming die as one step. There is no need for the complex feeding arms nor the complex timing mechanism of the older machines. The remaining web of waste paper drops away to the side of the machine. Although automation reduced the need for hand cutting, it has also limited the flexibility and the range of printing designs and shapes for Patty Pans. However, the reels introduced the economies of scale that allow a greater volume of production per design and a lower unit cost.
The increasing unit cost of the traditional machines and the consequent move into automation ended the Golden Age of decorative Patty Pans. The largest single factor in the rise in the unit cost was the rising labour cost which resulted from the wage revolution of the 1960s and 1970s. In the 1930s female operators were paid lower rates than their male counterparts. The disparity was not finally faced until the 1960s when equal pay was progressively introduced. Automation therefore allowed the manufacturers to adjust to the attendant explosion in labour costs. One machine was then able to achieve the output of three of four 1930s machines, with the result that on girl could achieve the output of three of four others and there was no need of the hand cutter. However, it led to an increase in the role of the machine engineer. In a contracting industry, there were no Luddites to protest against the change toward automation.
Despite their fragile appearence Patty Pans provide a number of services for the busy cook. These services include cake control, cleanliness and variety of cake shapes and sizes. They hold the semi-liquid cake mix in a serviceable shape until it has been cooked and so stabilised. Being fluid the cake mix tends to spread out over the baking tray and so reduces the rising action of the bicarbonate of soda or self-raising flour, set in motion by the heat of the oven. Without being contained by the Patty Pan or cake tin the cake would be more like a flat sweet biscuit and lack the cake's desired light moist centre. The fluting of the Patty Pans, while being a technical necessity to absorb the excess paper of the outer edge of the circular paper blanks, is also claimed to be a rising agent for smaller cakes. Barker Cohoes promoted its own variation of the fluting by giving the flutes a 45 degree angle rather than the conventional 90 degree angle. Their argument ran that the angled flute allowed the liquid mix to rise as it heated and expanded upwards in the oven. But unlike the vertical flute it hindered the cake's tendency to sink once it came into contact with the cold air outside the oven. The concept played on the concern of all cooks that the ‘batch’ of cakes would be flat. The argument was never challenged but faded as the weight of the paper was reduced in the face of rising costs in the 1960s. The Patty Pans then became more of a cake tray lining than an independent cake mould. However, the Patty Pan is still accepted as a necessity because of its aid to cooking cleanliness.
Even if metal moulds replace Patty Pans there is the problem of the cake mix sticking to the metal cooking container. Therefore, even the modern lightweight Patty Pans are necessary for cleanliness. They both line and protect the cooking containers and make the process of ‘turning out the cake’, once cooked, easier and safer for the cake. The alternative guarding technique is to ‘dredge’ the tin's surface with a mixture of flour and icing sugar. The mixture hardens providing a surface for the bottom of the cake, reducing the cake's tendency to stick to the tin. However, the heated sugar and flour still have to be scrubbed off the tin.
As well as serving as a cake tin liner, the Patty Pan also protected the outer edge of the cake from its natural tendency to burn. In the period of wood stoves heat control was a major cooking problem, so greased brown paper was placed in the oven to gauge the oven's temperature. If the paper became deeply browned the oven was suitable for heavy fruit cakes and pies: if lightly browned it was suitable for light sponges and small cakes. The grease-proof Patty Pan provided the same heat test while at the same time protecting the cake from burning at the edges, and the cooking tins from baked-on cake mix.
Further, paper's flexibility and cheapness allowed
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it, in the 1930s, to be formed into a variety of inexpensive shapes and sizes. The cheapness allowed the home cook to produce a variety of different cakes without the expense of a collection of the heavier more standardised metal moulding cake trays.3 Barkers recommended its sizes C, D, E, F, H, gondola, square and boat shapes to the domestic cook for a graduated range of cakes to suit both general and festive types of cakes.4 The smaller sizes C and D were for the delicate ‘high crowned’ sponge cakes like Queen or Tea Cakes, while the larger sizes were for the heavier and more robust cake mixes which contained fruit or ginger or bread crumbs. Diamond, Club and Heart-shaped Patty Pans were suggested for card parties and for more exotic cakes like Trifle Cakes.5 The elongated Patty Pans variously called Gondola, a boat shape, were for the ever favourite eclair or for elongated savouries like sausage or asparagus roll.
Square Patty Pans have always been an elusive dream for patty manufacturers. The problem is how to absorb the excess paper at the corners. In a circular patty the fluting absorbs the wider outer diameter of the circle as it is reduced to the radius of the inner circular base. But in a square Patty Pan the square shape requires a sharp corner and so leads to a concentration of paper at the sharp points of the corners which has no fluting to absorb the bunched excess. In Gondola and boat-shaped pans the splayed ends or paper prow absorbs the excess paper as a feature of the shape itself.
In the smaller domestic Patty Pans companies like Barkers splayed the corners as a decorative feature and avoided the problem. In their ‘Cooksit’ packets they mixed metal moulds with angular corners and odd but technically possible paper shapes.6 The metal squares were used to make a square cake and the odd-shaped paper pans were used to decorate the square shape. However, the problem was never successfully solved in the large commercial block cake sized Patty Pans. The only makeshift solution was to provide a pre-cut tin liner with the corners cut and the inner base creased so that the liner could be pressed into the square or oblong cake tin. The resulting flap at the corners covered the join at the corners. But the use of tin liners was a labour-intensive procedure and was never a complete success. Despite the flap the liquid cake mix tended to ooze out onto the tin at the corners. The problem was eventually avoided by the introduction of the more malleable foil baking containers, but these are outside the scope of this article.
However, even today the paper Patty Pan retains one special advantage over its foil competitors. This advantage is that the paper's fibrous nature allows the cake to breathe so that in hot climates like that of Queensland there is less danger of mould developing at the bottom of the cake or pie. Foil traps the moisture in the cake and because the cake cannot breathe through metal, mould can develop along the bottom and sides of the cake.
Barkers recipe book suggested a wide range of cake recipes for the various sizes of the Patty Pan range. In itself the book is primary evidence of the attitudes of the 1930s. Its opening page carries the heading ‘Why You Should Make Cakes’ —
‘The Body needs a balanced diet to maintain good health and provide the bloodstream with the chemicals that are necessary, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen…are chemical constituents obtained by eating cakes containing…Honey, figs, walnuts, cocoanut, eggs, raisins, milk…It will thus be seen that the most practical way to provide the body with the required chemical constituents is by making and eating cakes…’
Among the book's ‘Useful Hints’ is ‘Very considerable improved results will be obtained when baking cakes by gas, if some water is placed in a small receptacle at the bottom of the oven’. The book breathes confidence and paternal concern for the product's users.
Control, cleanliness and cheapness were also important aids provided by Patty Pans for the cake manufacturers and retail trade. Mass production in cake manufacture was originally confined to large block cakes like sponges and fruit cakes. A selfrespecting domestic cook saw nothing demeaning in buying block sponges to be cut into squares to make lamingtons. After all they were adding their own touches to the cake. They would not, however, contemplate buying a batch of factory made cakes. ‘I could do better myself. If an emergency or special occasion required a cake the housewife would turn to one of the few speciality cake shops. Despite these conventions there was a market for the large manufactured block cakes which was satisfied by such firms as Herbert Adams.
Patty Pans are useful in the cake manufacturer's production lines because they keep the cake as a contained and wrapped unit from the mixing stage to the point of final sale. By keeping the cake as a unit, the Patty Pan reduced the amount of clogging cake crust on the forming and cooking trays and made the cakes easier to handle during decorating, packing and distribution stages. Also, where the large cakes were intended to be cut up and sold in pieces in the retail outlets, the manufacturer's name on the paper passed through the production chain to the
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A selection from the Patty Pan collection in the La Trobe Collection, State Library of Victoria.
(Photograph by Adrian Flint)

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retailer and purchaser. Continuous printing on paper is easier and cheaper than printing on metal such as foil. Paper holds the printed image by absorbing the vegetable inks into the cellulose fibres so that the image can survive the cooking process. Printing on metal needs its own special process of ‘baking on’ before it is stable enough for the cake manufacturer's production.
To satisfy the cake manufacturer's block cake needs, the Patty Pan manufacturers developed large Patty Pans to suit the baker's cake tin sizes. Some of these large sizes are still made — Barker ‘U’ size with a five and a half inch base and two inches high, and the ‘Tall Boys’ three and a half inch base, two three-eighths inches high. Because of the size, the large commercial Patty Pans are virtually hand made in large hand presses. The die uses the male and female principle with the extrusion hole being at the base of the female die. The paper was counted into units of 12 or 15 or any required low number, then interleaved with a coloured paper. The counted ream was passed to the cutting press and the circles then passed onto the forming press where the counted unit of paper was placed into the mouth of the die. The die was contained in a frame similar to a large linen press and similarly closed by spinning a large counterweighted handle.
Again the principles of heat and dwell lay behind the forming process and the completed pans were extruded into a box below the machine from which they were packed in specially made cylinders. The forming machine was surprisingly easy to handle and could be operated by a girl half its size.
Mid-sized Patty Pans were also developed for the smaller commercial standbys of muffins and ginger or fruit cakes. These included sizes like Barker's ‘O’ two and a half inch base and two and a third inches high or ‘J’ with a one and three-quarter inch base and four and three-quarter inches high. These were made from circles over seven and four and threequarter inches respectively. The sizes are still used in sandwich shops today. Many of the cake manufacturers had the mid-size pans printed with their house brand names so that the name reached the purchaser. The 1930s saw the development and promotion of many well-known household names like Brockhoff, Arnott, Rosella, Robur and Dandy. Daryl Lindsay drew teapots for Robur Tea and Henry Lawson wrote advertising texts.7 It was a period of boldness and pride of product promoted by the owner/manager proprieter of the day. These men carried forward the exuberance and confidence of their late Victorian predecessors into the competitive and depressed marketplace of the 1930s. It was also a period of consolidation in which larger firms replaced smaller oneman concerns.
However, the small speciality cake shops which aimed at the afternoon tea and bridge party clientele did survive and promoted their own brand names and names like Carlisle Cakes, The Paragon (Katoomba) and the Midway Cake Shop found their way into sitting-rooms. Brockhoffs carried speciality concept into the post-war period with their speciality, patty-packed ‘Chocolate Royals’.
Also in the post-war period firms like Louis of Prahran offered the continental cake which was to become in the post-war period part of the Australian way of life. Again they turned to the printed patty as a means of promotion. A visit to Acland Street St. Kilda, on a Sunday shows how deeply ingrained this type of cake has now become.
The La Trobe collection of graphic designs for Patty Pans is surprisingly rich in designs of the 1930s and can be divided into three main categories. First, those designs intended for domestic use — the largest; second, those for retail cake shops and last, those for cake manufacturers. The latter tended to grow after World War II as the more mobile postwar society turned to commercial sources for their cakes for home, office and school. Of the three, the domestic collection is the largest and most varied with graphic designs for children's parties, adult entertainment, commemorative and patriotic themes.
The children's party designs include illuminated nursery rhymes like ‘Humpty Dumpty’, ‘Jack and Jill’ and the now ostracised, ‘Ten Little Nigger Boys’. They are described as being for ‘Little and Big Tots’. Their designs show parallels with the work of Walter Crane. They have the same strong emphasis on line and curved clear volumes emphasised by the contrast of light and dark masses. They are bolder than similar children's drawings by Kate Greenaway or the hatching technique used by Randolph Caldicott.8 The squatter horizontal designs found in some of Crane's work were very suitable for the medium of Patty Pans, where the design had to run in a parallel band around the upright edge of the pan. For the older children there were designs for the pans that sported top hats for boys and paper crowns for girls. The children in the packets’ illustrations are shown seated formally in high-backed chairs along a formallyset long dining table. The boys wear bow ties and the girls shoe string topped dresses. The balloons, streamers and party hats add to the party mood. The design suggests the more formal social aspirations of the pre-war period — a world before the ubiquitous family room and junior jeans. The packet's design while lighter and freer than the early panelled
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designs of the ‘Nursery Rhyme’, ‘Coloured’ and ‘Bridge’ Patty Pans still retains the medallion shield. The shield was a popular device being found in such diverse 1930s designs as Levaphone and Victor record labels,9 Uncle Toby's Oats packets dated 1925–35 and the many varieties of Australian matchbox labels.10 Also the ‘Party’ packets see the usually dominant edging boards break free from the late Art Nouveau flowing lines and sinuous corner designs and move toward the geometric forms of Art Deco. Such mixtures of stylistic elements were regarded as stock in trade for the period. J. N. Halstead in his contemporary Modern Ornament and Design suggests designs that combined both Art Nouveau line foliation and ribboned corners with Art Deco's angular hatched scripts and straight edge lines11
The mixture of designs in Barker's package designs suggests the combination of its earlier Art Nouveau house style with a progressive adaptation to Art Deco for its products’ packaging. Barker was founded in 191412 when Art Nouveau design was dominant, see, for example, Martell's Cognac labels 1900–1914.13 Gumleaf, a major local pan competitor which was founded before 1914 and active in the 1930s seems to have assumed a more decidedly Art Deco mantle.14
Barker's late recipe book cover and its chocolate box designs — also in the collection — follow the Art Deco format of angular and shadowed lettering.15 Barker's catalogue cover, which can be dated by the registration date of its trade mark to 1943, uses an Art Deco typeface.16
The collection's adult Patty Pans also have strong Art Deco elements of geometric shapes and straight lines, which seem to reinforce the period's sense of formality and sense of occasion. The adult patty packets follow Halstead's dictum that the packet's design should reflect the essential nature and purpose of its contents. The Bridge and Trumps packets clearly display the card symbols found in the shape and decorative motifs of the pans themselves. The packet designs also show the blending of Art Deco's clean geometric lines with the Art Nouveau house design.
The range of adult pan shapes included specialised elongated shapes like Boat and Gondola. In the Nouvelles range, the boat shapes, oval, square and round, were combined and offered as containers for the everimportant cocktail party savouries. The smaller round and oval shapes were supplied for the ritual of the tea party. Elizabeth Craig, the editor of New Standard Cookery Illustrated of 1933, while recommending greater simplicity, in fact underscores the accepted ritual.17
It is quite unnecessary to have elaborate fare for afternoon tea. Bread and butter, a plate of dainty sandwiches and hot buttered muffins, crumpets or scones, followed by a layer cake, and a plate of fancy or shortbread biscuits or of some small cakes, is quite sufficient for about six people.
Afternoon Tea Menu No. 1
Lemon Biscuits (half an egg)
Mustard and Cress Sandwiches
Fairy Cakes (3 eggs)
Scotch Fruit Cake (9 eggs)
Mocha Cake (4 eggs)
Menu No. 2
Hot Tea Cakes (1 egg)
Chocolate Cakes (3 eggs)
Orange Layer Cake (3 eggs)
Plum Cake (4 eggs)
Tutti Frutti Cakes (1 egg)
Menu No. 3
Cream Scones (Cream!)
Shrimp Sandwiches (half-pint shrimps)
Strawberry Sandwiches (Sponge) (4 eggs)
Neapolitan Cakes (4 eggs)
Cocoanut Macaroons (2 eggs)
Genoa Cake (5 eggs)
Sponge Cake (4 eggs)
Also included in the collection's graphic designs are the commemorative and patriotic pans. The former are represented by designs for the Centenary of Victoria and the opening of the Sydney Harbour Bridge. The first shows Batman and his meeting with the local Aboriginal tribes on one side of the pan and the present Parliament House on the other. The design sits comfortably along the sides of the pans and simply but clearly states its message, 1834–1934. But it is the design for the opening of the Sydney Harbour Bridge that is perhaps the most impressive piece of graphic design in the collection. The Sydney bridge had been a major theme in local art in the 1930s, being seen as a symbol of the triumph of technology. The two separate constructions on either side of the harbour had been moving toward each other and were successfully joined to become one. The achievement symbolised hope and progress during the difficult depression years. Many progressive artists like Grace Cossington Smith and Ronald Wakelin painted the bridge's progress. Rogerston's Famous Seasick Remedy of 1932 and the Federal Match
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Co. c. 1926 used the bridge for their labels.18 It became a symbol for success and quality. Barker's designs for the bridge adopted the long horizontal of the structure so that it flowed along the edge of the pan. The broad sweeping lines are elongated in the flat blank so that when the pan was formed and the fluting created, the whole design came into its proper proportion and at the same time filled the indents of the flutes — a clever piece of design on a complex surface.
In contrast the festive Christmas pans and their packets are comfortably conventional. Father Christmas is shown in various ways as a genial face, or on a sled, or coming down a chimney. The colours are strong greens, reds and yellows. The jolly, solid forms are reminiscent in mood to the popular German cutouts that have lingered from the late Victorian period until today. Quayle illustrates a magnificent Father Christmas cutout of 1892 which stands nearly 40 cm high.19 The main Father Christmas theme is supported by candles, toys and holly.
Similary the patriotic Patty Pans make all the points they should make. The Australian Flag replaces the usual Art Nouveau panel decoration and a small medallioned caption contains a direct message of patriotism — ‘These cake containers are made within the Empire and can be depended upon for reliable results’. A second panel provides a suitable patriotic cake recipe.
In the second group of Patty Pan graphics made for the retail shops, the designs are simpler and more direct. They state the name of the shop or institution and its address. While they are necessarily pedestrian in detail they do provide a check-list of places. There are exotic pans for ‘The Victoria Confectionary and Store’, No. 7 Victoria Street, Singapore, Proprietor Joseph Sin Tong, and the Luna Cafe, ⅔ Dhoby Ghout, Singapore. Tea and tiny cakes shared the Singapore stage with Raffles’ fan palms and a tiger in the Bar.
There are also pans for the comfortably familiar suburban cake shops like The Midway and Carlisle cake shops and there are the famous like the Paragon Cafe, Katoomba, almost a national institution which sported the delights of Art Deco decoration. The retail tradition continues today in such cake shops as Pattersons and Fleischers of Prahran.
Examples of the third group of pan graphics — the cake manufacturers’ Patty Pans — are sparse. Only the large sizes and the names like Southern Bakery and Herbert Adams have survived to enter the collection. There was little need for complicated graphic design for the large serviceable cakes often cut up before sale. The emphasis of design was directed at creating a house logo that could be used in a continuous printed tin liner or Patty Pan.
Therefore the Library's collection reflects the range if not the volume of the graphics of the Golden Age of Patty Pans — the 1930s. It is fortunately strongest in the designs created for the domestic market in which competition created a public taste for variety and good design. It is the domestic designs that give us the greatest insight into the competing schools of design, Art Nouveau and Art Deco, and into the decidedly more formal social aspirations of the period. It was an age in which radio announcers on the Abc wore dinner suits and bow ties when they were broadcasting.
Retail shops and the cake manufacturers looked more to simple direct advertising with volume rather than variety. The balance of the collection's range of examples reflect these differing requirements. The greater the variety of designs the bigger the representation in the collection.
Fortunately, the Patty Pan is not dead and the collection has a few selected modern examples. These include pink, green and white muffin sized pans from the Brown Corporation of the U.S.A., the New Zealand smaller Jay Tees made in Dunedin, the bright modernistic designs of Kochbah Kalkis baking cups of South Africa, the sumptuously coloured and gilt Scandinavian cups and the sensible paper and foil shrink packed Barker Cohoes now owned by the Deco Corporation.
Chocolate crackles still lead a mother to add Patty Pans to the modern shopping list.
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Peter Sheen

1

Traditional nursery rhyme. Oxford Dictionary of Quotations, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1941), p. 532.

2

New Larousse Gastronomique, (London: Prosper Montagne, Paul Hamlyn, 1978)

3

Australia in the Good Old Days — An Edwardian Catalogue, (Sydney: Lansdowne Press, 1981 reprint), pp. 119, 136.

4

Barker Cohoes Recipe Book. (Melbourne: Barker & Co.), centre page.

5

Ibid., recipes 46, 47.

6

La Trobe Library, pre-accession No. 237.

7

B. Carroll, The Australian Advertising Album, (Melbourne: Macmillan 1975), p. 10.

8

R. Booth, ed., The Country Life Book of Book Collecting, (London: Country Life Books, 1976), pp. 120 ff.

9

B. Rust, The American Record Label Book from the Nineteenth Century through 1942, (N.Y.: Arlington House Publications, 1978), pp. 127, 304–5.

10

Carroll, op. cit., p. 53.

11

J. N. Halstead, Modern Ornament and Design, (Ohio: The Sign of the Times Publishing Co., 1927) p. 13, Fig. 37 p. 64, Fig. 41 p. 70.

12

Registration Form D, dated 16 June 1953, under the Business Names Act gives the commencement date of the business as 5 August 1914.

13

Carroll, op. cit., p. 47.

14

Mrs. J. Brown, former owner of the company later called Shulverton and Story, gives a founding date of 1910 for the company which traded as Gumleaf Paper Goods.

15

La Trobe Library, pre-accession No. 237.

16

Certificate of Registration of a Trade Mark No. 79394, dated 26 November 1943.

17

Elizabeth Craig, New Standard Cookery Illustrated, (London: Odhams Press Ltd. 1933).

18

M. Cozzolino and G. F. Rutherford Symbols of Australia, (Coburg, Vic.: Cozbook, 1980), p.148

19

Eric Quayle, The Collector's Book of Children's Books, London: Studio Vista, Compton, Publishing Ltd., 1971) p.32.